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Rajesh Patnaik. Related Papers. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development. For further induction motor by using a three-phase inverter circuit.
After analyzing this document, the reader can www. The design does The last chapter of this document contains a list of not include power factor correction because of the recommendations that the reader may want to further low-cost initiative.
Hardware optimizations for different types of motors and input voltages are detailed. A dynamometer and a power analyzer are used to characterize the reference design. The entire procedure and materials described in this document will provide the reader with enough material to design a repeatable experiment. Three-phase applications can also utilize this board with minimal software changes; however, this document does not provide a detailed analysis on the results.
Instructions on the setup and testing procedure of a three-phase motor are covered in this application note. It has low starting torque and The permanently installed capacitor trades off starting current; however, it incurs inefficiencies from the torque capability at standstill with ripple torque expensive, non-polarized run capacitor. This capacitor reduction at running speed. Because of the high VA commonly fails before the rest of the motor, so there is rating of the capacitor, capacitors are often selected to a concern for maintenance because of this meet the minimum starting performance requirements, dependency.
For motors that do not have identical windings, it is Topology necessary to feed the two phases with different voltages.
Consequently, this raises the unable to turn without sufficient phase shift between voltage across one of the windings and causes uneven the two windings. A capacitor can be placed current flow.
The switch is often replaced with a relay that can control the direction by swapping which phase leads or lags the other. The value of the capacitor is typically specified by the motor manufacturer and is sometimes in the range of uF for motors that are less than 1 HP.
The capacitor is carefully chosen in an attempt to correct the power factor for maximum power efficiency. The voltage rating is typically high at around V, depending on the input voltage.
The capacitor must not be polarized, since it is across an alternating voltage. If this capacitor fails, the motor will cease to turn. The importance of selecting the correct capacitor is therefore critical.
This topology has the benefit of being able to adjust the speed of the motor and apply the appropriate amount of voltage on each winding so that the weaker winding is not overdriven. VDC is created after rectifying the AC input.
See Figure 31 for the entire system overview. Equation 2 shows a general time domain expression of a sinusoidal wave that will be used to graph and analyze the voltages on the motor. Equation 3 shows the individual inverter phases after Phase VV is considered the neutral one. Each winding applying the general representation of a time varying has VV as its reference. As Figure 5 shows, the peak voltage is much lower The resultant waveform across the motor does not than the original V.
The third fundamental is added to the sine VRMS source with capacitor. Figure 6 shows the a look-up table with the modified values. Table 1 shows a summary of the tests conducted. Acceleration and Speed To identify which method turns the motor shaft the fastest and how quickly the load will accelerate. Efficiency To compare the real component of the output power to the input power and to measure the power factor and other inefficiencies.
These three tests cover the largest design considerations in motor control. None of the tests require a special setup from the other tests. Each analysis in the three separate tests uses the same subset of data. Equipment Table 2 lists the equipment used during the tests.
Its nameplate readings can be seen in Table 3. AN This particular motor has a balanced winding configuration. Both windings are identical in terms of resistance and inductance. The results shown in this document will differ from other motors constructed in other various ways. Test Setup The entire test setup can be seen in Figure 8.
The programmable controller applies the test setup from the M-TEST 7 software to the dynamometer and reads the applied torque. All other readings are performed by the power analyzer and logged. The input to the system is single-phase, two-wire All tests lasted under 60 seconds because of the risk of 1P2W voltage at V, 60 Hz.
The power analyzer is damaging the insulation of the motor as a result of large also configured for 1P2W on its single element input. The inverter has an optional recommendations on the subject of voltage doubler that is not used during the tests since prolonged stress testing locked rotor. When a test is running, the Property Value programmable controller adjusts the dynamometer to apply a specific braking force. Before initiating a test, Switching Frequency 7.
When the maximum speed for a specific Dead Band ns max. The duration of the test depends on the starting speed of the motor. When the test is complete, the power analyzer and The M-TEST software runs a dynamic ramp test with motor feedback readings are consolidated into a inertia cancellation on the motor. A single locked rotor reading is extrapolated using 20 data points. Table 5 shows a summary of the tests performed. These three categories of tests use the same data points but present different pieces of it.
The main advantage of using an inverter board over the traditional PSC method is that the user can control the voltage and drive frequency. Multiple modulation frequencies are tested on the inverter board to characterize the effects on the motor, such as maximum torque, speed and efficiency. The voltage and frequency can be adjusted with the inverter board. A voltage-to-frequency ratio means that the voltage scales with the frequency in an exact linear fashion.
The inverter board can control these two parameters independently of one another to create unique results. A maximum voltage-to-frequency ratio implies that the voltage is kept at its maximum whilst the frequency is adjusted.
Table 6 shows what frequencies are tested and their maximum torque results when both a linear voltage-to-frequency and maximum voltage-to- frequency control algorithms are used for frequencies lower than 60Hz. Torque Max. Speed Max. Efficiency Max. If the motor is Equation 4 below. Frequencies varying voltage amplitude and frequency will result in above and below 60 Hz have lower torque profiles.
For more information, the rated frequency of 60 Hz. Ideally, a ratio please refer to the WEG technical guide listed under between the voltage and frequency should yield a Reference 8.
Overvoltage will damage the insulation of the stator and cause premature malfunctioning of the motor. From the rated frequency upwards, the voltage is kept constant while the frequency is increased. This causes the flux to decrease and the motor torque starts to decrease gradually. For more information please refer to the WEG technical guide under Reference 8. Frequencies lower than 60 Hz require a fine tuning of the voltage-frequency ratio because of losses in the motor and inaccuracies in the motor drive.
The plots in Figure 9, which do not show a constant torque profile, are created using a ratio. To understand this at its maximum while adjusting the frequency. The high voltage applied to this lowered impedance raises the current in the stator which The red line shows how the software should control the produces higher torque. Figure 12 shows a typical plot of torque curves method. AN The shapes of the curves between the two methods An important consideration is to determine at what differ greatly.
The capacitor method shows a slightly point to stop incrementing the frequency. If the load larger starting torque and will accelerate faster than the requires a minimum of 0. The inverter board produces a inverter board should be configured to stop its curve similar to that of a class D design motor, whilst hard-start at around 80 Hz. An unequal voltage magnitude caused by the with the correct curve, so as to maximize the efficiency permanent capacitor creates an unequal magnitude of when the motor has been spun up to its running speed.
The shape of the torque curves are Figure 16 shows a soft-start, which lowers the initial not similar because of these discrepancies in the stress of the motor as it spins up to its running speed. However, the inverter board can use Variable Frequency Drive to lift an even larger-sized load as seen in Figure The designer must also take into consideration the trade-offs of large starting torque versus efficiency and speed.
Figure 15 shows a hypothetical motor operation where the load requires a large starting torque to overcome stresses such as static friction.
This is considered a hard-start. Note: Lines in red are a hypothetical course. It may be more practical and easier to pick one frequency curve and stay on it.
The faster it spins, the sooner the load can be design property in applications where the load is fixed pushed or pulled to its destination. Getting the gate up and requires a large amount of starting torque. Figure 17 shows the run before modifying the applied voltage and frequency. Nominal Run Speed 60 Hz board at 80 Hz. Torque Range Settings to accommodate motors that only require low torque can be easily adjusted with the inverter board.
The inverter can change the frequency and voltage, which is not possible with the limited on and off control of the PSC. With the permanent capacitor, the motor must be sized larger than what is needed and may spend its lifetime not operating at its fully rated load. The shaded area represents more torque available for acceleration than the other curve below it.
Even though the 80 Hz curve reaches up to RPM, the motor will take longer to reach that speed compared to the capacitor method. An application where the load must be moved a large distance would benefit from riding along the 80 Hz curve since it will be cruising at a higher speed on average.
Short distance applications may benefit from using the 60 Hz curve with the capacitor method, since the 80 Hz curve will take a longer time to ramp up its speed. AN Please note that this particular motor has four poles. At Summary 60 Hz, its synchronous speed can be calculated as in 1. Speed Range Equation 5. A large delta will get the gate up faster to a certain P Total Number of Poles — speed.
This lowers the available torque on the motor shaft, but increases the speed at which it turns. The losses of the motor as well as the inverter board are lumped together in this model. Future tests may also want to place a one-phase three-wire 1P3W measuring element in-between the inverter board and the motor to further characterize the losses. If the maximum load line is crossed because of the frequency jumping too soon, the motor will stall by following its current curve back to 0 RPM i. Figure 21 shows the efficiency along with the input power.
Further analysis shown in Figure 22 shows that much of the input power is not consumed and it is rather Figure 20 shows the efficiency and torque plotted on wasted as reactive power.
Their axis is on the right. There is also no power stage with synchronous speed. Please note the motor is not the PSC method to support typical circuitry such as a running at its maximum efficiency when the torque is microprocessor and sensor inputs.
The power factor also at its maximum. The temperature range on the bottom indicates an overall increase of the entire The two large DC capacitors only consume current picture. The arrow in the box simply indicates the when the DC voltage lowers below the peak voltage of warmest part in the box. The designer must take the the AC input. The current drawn will have PSC method produces more losses in the stator. An significant harmonic content due to the presence of the induction motor fed by PWM voltage presents a lower switching elements.
The designer may want to Additional analysis into the harmonics produced by the install passive power factor correction to improve the switching elements on the inverter should be design. The power that can improve the data. An improved power factor will Figure 26 through Figure The current in the inverter would theoretically double if the voltage doubler was used for V systems. The designer should consider this when the inverter is to be placed in a direct substitution of a PSC application.
The output power does not increase much at maximum voltage in lower frequencies. Because of the inductive load, a decrease in frequency lowers its impedance and causes a large increase in current. The limiting factor in the inverter board is the ripple current in the DC capacitors. Please see Table 19 for more information regarding design limitations. The mechanical output power of the motor is also compared to that of the PSC run method, as seen in Figure Losses in the inverter The inverter board is constructed as an run motor can be attributed to the inverter itself and to application-specific platform rather than a general the switching elements.
However, it does provide 2. The inverter is strictly The PSC method has an almost unity power factor. Most of the parts in the bill of materials therefore, it wastes energy in the power grid. After reading this section, the around W. The inverter hardware. A drop-in replacement scenario should note this key difference. Although the inverter board can lift a heavier gate at Overview faster speeds, the rate of work is considerably less Figure 31 shows a top-level overview of the overall when driving a split-phase motor with no run capacitor.
As the motor spins, the microcontroller inserted for V systems with a V motor. Note: Please see Table 20 for configuration settings.
Incorrect jumper settings may cause the board to malfunction. It is then rectified to a DC bus voltage. Each 15V power source is then down-converted to 5V from a linear regulator. The user interface uses optocouplers as isolation for safety issues. The printed circuit board has a clear indicator in silkscreen that designates what is safe to touch.
After validation passes, the user can use the inverter board as described in Table 7. Note the size and type of motor to be attached to the board. Program either the single-phase hex file or the three-phase hex file onto the board by using the header at P1. Place a fuse into the fuse holder at F1 that can pass the rated motor current. Connect the three motor wires to terminal P4. Refer to Figure 3 for single-phase motor connections.
Connect your input voltage of either V or V to terminal P3. Refer to Table 20 for jumper settings. Place the wiper in POT1 to its halfway point. Place the wiper in POT0 fully clockwise.
Press either S0 and S1 to start the motor. The motor should slowly ramp up to its maximum speed at Hz modulation. Slowly turn POT0 counterclockwise to slow the motor to a halt. Turning it fully counterclockwise will turn the motor in the opposite direction. Adjusting POT1 will trigger an automatic shutdown if the trip point threshold is met. The trip LED will illuminate when this happens. The user must press S0 or S1 to start up the motor again after an emergency shutdown event. AN Feature Summary The inverter board was designed with flexibility in mind; therefore, some of the features listed in Table 8 can be omitted to optimize performance with cost.
There is still plenty of space for the developer to use custom modifications. Table 9 shows how much code space and how many modules are used to meet the design specifications. Distribution: Malaysia, on submerged wood Ho et al. Ambarignomonia petiolorum Schwein. Sogonov Asexual morph: Undetermined Ges. Leipzig 1: Gnomoniella : Gnomonia petiolorum Schwein. Cooke, Gre- microspora was originally collected from terrestrial habi- villea 7: 54 tats Monod Same as Gno- specimens collected from freshwater habitats: ILLS , moniella microspora, the original collection of G.
However, we sequence data are available. Fallah and Shearer consider this species as freshwater fungus as Ho et al. Colonies on PDA effuse, Ambarignomonia petiolorum. Conidio- Gnomonia Ces. Asexual morph see Sivanesan and Shaw Sexual Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, determinate, with morph Description see Maharachchikumbura et al.
Conidia straight or curved, oblong, hya- Type species: Gnomonia vulgaris Ces. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed, subglo- Comm.
Peridium composed of 2 layers, with and De Notaris and typified by Gnomonia gnomon. Paraphyses hyaline, broad, septate. Asci unituni- Shaw ; Fallah and Shearer ; Senanayake et al. J-, subapical ring. Ascospores cylindrical, straight or Gnomonia papuana Sivan.
Shaw curved, versicolorous, transseptate, brown with hyaline or Distribution: Papua New Guinea, on submerged leaves pale brown end cells. Sivanesan and Shaw Sequence data is not Phruensis with a single species P. No more species reported for Gnomoniella Sacc.
Sexual morph Ascomata Phruensis brunneispora Pinruan globose to subglobose, immersed. Asci cylindrical, subsessiles. Ascospores fusiform, horn peat swamp forest, on submerged palm in freshwater ellipse, hyaline, septate. Type species: Gnomoniella tubaeformis Tode Sacc. Abellini 1: b Notes: Kirk et al.
SSU genus Gnomoniella. Two species have been found in sequence data is available. Culture on PDA from above i and reverse j. Culture on PDA from surface l and reverse m. Culture on PDA from above n and reverse o. Culture on MEA from above l and reverse m. Scale bars: c—k 30 lm Distoseptisporales Z. Luo, H. Hyde, ord. Conidio- Notes: Distoseptisporaceae was established by Su et al. Conidiogenous phology and phylogeny. Culture on PDA from above o and reverse p.
Scale Distoseptisporales. Phylogenetic results show that Asexual morph Description and illustration see Su et al. Distoseptispora appendiculata is distinct from other spe- and Yang et al. Sexual morph cies of Distoseptispora Fig. Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al. Type species: Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al. Notes: Su et al.
Currently, there are 13 species in Dis- Distoseptispora cangshanensis Luo et al. Mountain, on submerged wood Luo et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Distoseptispora appendiculata D. Bao, Z. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or Distoseptispora guttulata J.
Hyde mid-brown, hairy, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed, Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Conidiophores 62—86 lm long, 4.
Mycelium partly superficial, partly matous, solitary, erect, straight or flexuous, olivaceous or immersed, consisting of branched, septate, smooth, sub- brown, 5—6-septate, smooth. Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores 28—84 lm monoblastic, holoblastic, terminal, dark brown. Conidiogenous below, hyaline towards apex, truncate at base, slender and cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate, mid to rounded at apex, smooth, with a conspicuous, gelatinous, dark brown, cylindrical, sometimes proliferating percur- hyaline sheath around tip.
Sexual morph Undetermined. Conidia 70— — lm long, 8. Notes: Distoseptispora appendiculata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora appendicu- lata is easily distinguished from D. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of – RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater 5—9-euseptate conidia, while D.
Bayesian euseptate conidia. Phylogenetically, Distoseptispora gut- posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Ex-type or ex-epitype strains are in species Fig. Hyde Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olive- et al.
Conidiophores 29—47 lm long, 4—6 lm Distoseptispora guttulata was introduced by matous, solitary, brown, 2—3-septate, straight or slightly Yang et al. Morphologically, our iso- apex, olive-green to dark brown. Conidiogenous cells late fits well with the characters of D.
Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our isolate determinate, cylindrical. Conidia — lm long, 12— clusters with ex-type of D. Conidial seces- K. Hyde, sp. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, scattered, hairy, Hua Hin, on submerged wood in a stream Hyde et al. Mycelium mostly immersed, com- b. Distoseptispora multiseptata was introduced by uous, 6—septate, unbranched, cylindrical, brown, Yang et al. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, integrated, ter- freshwater stream in Thailand. Morphologically, our iso- minal, determinate, brown, cylindrical.
Conidia 60— late fits well with the characters of D. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our acrogenous, solitary or catenate, obclavate, truncate at isolate clusters with ex-type of D. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olivaceous, cylindrical, septate conidiophores, solitary or in groups on hairy.
Scale bars: b, c lm, Notes: Distoseptispora obclavata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora brown hyphae. Conidiophores 93— lm long, 5.
Phylogenetic results show that Distosep- flexuous, tapering distally, truncate at the apex. Conidio- tispora appendiculata is distinct from other species of genous cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, brown, Distoseptispora Fig.
Conidia — lm long, 13—15 lm wide Distoseptispora obpyriformis Z. Notes: Distoseptispora neorostrata shares similar mor- Sexual morph: Undetermined phological characters with D. However, the multi-gene phylogenetic analyses Distoseptispora rostrata Luo et al. Su, on submerged wood Luo et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or on submerged wood Luo et al.
Conidiophores Conidiogenous cells River Yang et al. Sexual Distoseptisporales genera incertae sedis morph Undetermined. Aquapteridospora Yang et al. Yang, K. Both of these species also Notes: Yang et al. Aquapteridospora with single asexual species, A lignicola, However, A. In this study, we introduce the second species without a sheath, while the conidia of A. Aquapteridospora was placed as guttules in the middle cells and a conspicuous sheath.
Diaporthomycetidae genera incertae sedis by Yang et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that A. In our phylogenetic analysis, Aquapteridospora lignicola are distinct from other species, but they cluster species form a distinct clade within Distoseptisporales and together with strong support Fig.
To further basal to Distoseptisporaceae, and we therefore treat this support A. Aquapteridospora lignicola Yang et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Magnaporthales Thongk et al. LSU sequence data is Ceratosphaeriaceae Z. Hyde, available. Aquapteridospora fusiformis Z. Luo, D. Bao, H. Phialides or short number: FoF , Fig. Conidiogenous cells fungus. Conidia cylindrical, hyaline, aseptate, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater.
Sexual morph Stromata absent. Ascomata globose Asexual morph Colonies on the natural substrate effuse, to pyriform, deeply immersed to almost superficial, dark hairy, pale brown to brown. Mycelium superficial or partly brown to black, carbonaceous, with a long cylindrical, immersed, composed of branched, septate, pale brown to black or yellow crystals neck. Periphyses well-developed. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, fairly tate, smooth, thick-walled, brown at the base, paler towards thin-walled, the apex truncate, with a conspicuous J-apical apex.
Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, terminal, later ring. Ascospores arranged biseriately, narrowly cylindric- becoming intercalary, pale brown, integrated, with several fusiform, or filiform, the ends acute, thin-walled, hyaline, sympodial proliferations, bearing tiny, protuberant, circular septate, guttulate, smooth-walled. Conidia 14—18 lm long, 5—7 lm wide Type genus: Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh.
Phylogeneti- Undetermined. Morphologically, Pseudohalonectriaceae is 18—, holotype , ex-type living culture MFLUCC characterized by erumpent to immersed ascomata with a 18— Scale b Appearance of neck on substrate.
Culture on PDA from surface k and reverse l. Scale bars: b lm, c 50 lm, d— Holotype: MFLU 18— f 30 lm, g—j 20 lm Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater habitats. Sexual morph Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. Ceratosphaeriaceae is distinct solitary. Neck long, surface smooth, at times with yellow from Pseudohalonectriaceae in having narrowly cylindric- crystals. Peridium 29—43 lm thick, composed of an inner fusiform to filiform, longer ascospores.
We therefore layer of flattened hyaline cells, a middle layer of small, introduce a new family Ceratosphaeriaceae to accommo- polygonal to irregular, pale brown cells, an outer layer of date Ceratosphaeria. Pa- Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh. Ascospores 89—95 9 4— slimy, inconspicuous, and transparent.
Conidia cylin- Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic drical with curvature, hyaline, narrowly rounded at both on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater river, April ends, aseptate, smooth. However, Cer- detached, scattered to densely aggregated. Peridium com- atosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Interascal tissue of tulate, septate, larger ascospores 89—95 9 4—7 vs. Ceratosphaeria aquatica also periphyses well-developed. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, shares similar morphological characters with C.
However, conspicuous, J-, apical ring. Ascospores arranged biseri- Ceratosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Type species: Ceratosphaeria lampadophora Berk. Notes: The genus Ceratosphaeria was introduced by nat.
In this study, we introduce two new species 67 7 : in Ceratosphaeria. Asexual morph: Harpophora-like. Ceratosphaeria aquatica Z. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood 94— vs. RAxML bootstrap support fusiform, 5—7-septate ascospores. Bayesian posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Cannon than 0. Newly generated sequences are in red. Ex-type or ex- Aquafiliformis Z. Su, gen. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed with neck swamps Shearer and Crane Peridium composed of an inner Notes: Sequence data is not available.
Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical number: FoF , Fig. Ascospores filiform, aseptate, guttulate, Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling on wood. Su freshwater. Sexual morph Notes: Aquafiliformis morphologically resembles Cer- Ascomata — lm diam. Peridium Paraphyses 18— clusters in Magnaporthaceae, while Cer- 4.
Asci — 9 11—13 lm atosphaeriaceae Fig. Twenty genera with available molecular Ascospores 94— 9 3. However, our decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream, October strain differs from Muraeriata species in having globose to , Z. Ceratosphaeria lignicola differs ascospores, while Muraeriata species have lageniform to from C. Cer- creating large empty pockets, with an external brown crust atosphaeria lignicola also shares similar morphological and narrowly fusiform, septate ascospores Huhndorf et al.
Curtis Sacc. Abellini 2: Nograsek ; Hyde a. Therefore, we introduce a Notes: Saccardo introduced Ophioceras based on new genus Aquafiliformis to accommodate our collections. Ophioceras Aquafiliformis lignicola Z. Su, species are commonly encountered on decaying woody sp. Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling on wood. Ophioceras aquaticus Hu et al. Sexual morph Asexual morph: Undetermined Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. Peridium Ophioceras arcuatisporum Shearer et al.
Paraphyses 4. Sequence data drical to clavate, hyaline. Ascospores 57—69 9 2. However, Aquafiliformis lignicola differs Ophioceras dolichostomum Berk. Curtis Sacc from Neogaeumannomyces bambusicola in having differ- : Sphaeria dolichostoma Berk. Curtis, Soc. Aquafiliformis Bot. Phyloge- wood Hyde b ; Japan, Koito River, on submerged netic analysis also support that they belong to different wood Tsui et al.
Ophioceraceae Klaubauf et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Ophioceras Sacc. Abellini 2: Notes: Holotype anon. Peridium thick, blackened. Pa- Ophioceras fusiforme Shearer et al. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, with small, refractive, apical rings. Culture on PDA from above k and reverse l. Scale bars: apically rounded. Lin, stream, on submerged decorticated woody debris Shearer B MFLU 18—, holotype , ex-type living culture, et al. SSU sequence based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses and is related to data obtained from ex-type culture is available.
Ophioceras submersum resembles O. Lain Tsuen gense in having subglobose, black ascomata with a long River, on submerged wood Tsui et al. However, Ophio- Asexual morph: Undetermined ceras submersum differs from O. Sequence data is not smaller ascomata and longer asci Tsui et al.
Phylogenetic analysis also shows that they are distinct Ophioceras hongkongense Tsui et al. Lain Tsuen Ophioceras tenuisporum Shearer et al. River, on submerged wood Tsui et al. Iqbal J. Walker tubulin sequence data are available. Synonym: Gaeumannomyces leptosporus S.
Iqbal, Ophioceras venezuelense Shearer et al. Ophioceras submersum D. Muroi, Trans. Japan 19 2 : Etymology: Referring to the submerged habitats of the Asexual morph Hyphomycetous, phialidic. Phialides fungus hyaline, micronematous, flask-shaped. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed or Saprobic on decaying wood, submerged wood in partially immersed, with a long neck, globose to subglo- freshwater.
Sexual morph bose. Peridium membranous. Paraphyses numerous, sep- Ascomata — lm diam. Asci unitunicate, cylindrical, straight or solitary, deeply immersed, subglobose or ellipsoidal, cori- curved, with J-, thimble-shaped apical ring. Ascospores aceous, black, with a long black neck. Ostiole central, with overlapping uniseriate to biseriate, multi-seriate, filiformes, straight upright neck at one end, black, periphysate.
Japan 19 2 : layer of pseudoparenchyma cells occluded with brown Notes: The genus Pseudohalonectria was introduced to amorphous material, dark brown cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses 7—10 lm wide, hyaline, septate, constricted at Hongsanan et al.
Sixteen species are accepted in this submerged woody debris from Deer Pond Shearer genus, of which six species have been reported from a, b. Sequence data is not Pseudohalonectria adversaria Shearer available. The best the forward slash red. Newly generated sequences is presented. RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater than are in red. Ascospores ellip- from Quiver Creek Shearer Asexual morph: Undetermined Type species: Myrmecridium schulzeri Sacc.
Twelve species are accepted in this genus submerged wood Cai et al. Peintner et al. Muroi Myrmecridium aquaticum Z. Mycelium immersed, Pseudohalonectria longirostrum Shearer composed of septate, branched, smooth, hyaline hyphae. Distribution: Panama, a twig submerged in Shannon Conidiophores — lm long, 5—7 lm wide Creek Shearer Sequence data is not cylindrical, percurrently proliferating, brown, paler available.
Conidiogenous Pseudohalonectria lutea Shearer cells holoblastic, polyblastic, integrated, terminal, later Distribution: China, Yunnan Province, Lake Fuxian, on becoming intercalary, subhyaline to pale brown.
Conidia submerged wood Cai et al. LSU Sexual morph Undetermined sequence data is available. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, integrated, freshwater stream, March , X. Liu, S Conidia solitary, subhyaline, Notes: Myrmecridium aquaticum resembles M. Sexual morph Ascomata solitary or brown conidiophores, integrated, terminal and intercalary aggregated in small groups, immersed, hyaline to pale conidiogenous cells and obovoid, smooth conidia rounded brown. Papilla or short necks centrally located, opening at the apex Crous et al.
However, Myrmecridium flush with the wood surface or slightly projecting. Ostiole aquaticum differs from M. Clypeus positioned slightly beneath the wood conidiophores — vs. Ascomatal wall two layered. Paraphyses hyaline, longer conidia 14—16 vs. Phylogenetic Distribution: India, on submerged wood in freshwater analysis shows that Myrmecridium aquaticum is distinct Chary and Ramarao Asexual morph: Undetermined Myrmecridium fluviae Hyang B.
Nguyen Notes: Sequence data is not available. River located in Gwangju, from a freshwater sample Phomatosporaceae Senan. Hyde Tibpromma et al. Phomatospora Sacc. Sexual morph Ascomata solitary to rarely sequence data are available. Peridium com- Notes: Holotype PRM , other specimens col- prising small, brown pseudoparenchymatous cells forming lected from freshwater habitats: PRM , PRM a textura angularis to textura prismatica or inner, hyaline, Asci 8-spored, unitu- Subbaromyces Hesselt.
Torrey bot. Club nicate, cylindrical or oblong-fusiform, thin-walled, short stalked or sessile, apex oblong with J-, apical apparatus. Asexual morph Conidiophores branched, septate. Conidia Ascospores uniseriate, rarely biseriate, overlapping unise- hyaline, smooth-walled, asepate, exogenously formed, riate to biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform, 0—3-septate, not ellipsoid.
Sexual morph Ascomata partially submerged, constricted at the septum, sometimes bi-guttulate, guttules later superficial, membranous, syringe-shaped, beak divi- located at the ends of the cell, or longitudinally striate, ded into two portions by a large pronounced collar, with sometimes with filamentous appendages at both ends, upper portion tapering to a small ostiole, surrounded by a hyaline.
Paraphyses absent. Asci 8-spored, uni- Type species: Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc. Ascospores bot. Senanayake et al. Club modate the genera Phomatospora, Lanspora and Notes: The genus was established by Hesseltine Tenuimurus. Members of the genus Phomatospora are for a taxon collected from trickling filter rocks in New widely distributed in freshwater, marine and terrestrial York, USA. Two species were accepted within this genus habitats. Seven species of Phomatospora are known from Hesseltine ; Chary and Ramarao Muroi samples collected in India.
In updated Sequence data is not Maharachchikumbura et al. Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc Subbaromyces aquaticus Manohar. Freunde, Berlin stems of Typha latifolia; Wisconsin, Trout lake, on sub- 3 1—2 : 41 merged stems of Carex comosa, Big Muskellunge lake, on Asexual morph Descriptions and illustrations refer to Su submerged stems of Scirpus brevicaudatus, Allequash lake, et al.
Sexual morph Descriptions and illustrations on submerged stems of Typha latifolia Fallah and Shearer refer to Zhang et al. Type species: Sporidesmium atrum Link, Mag. Asexual morph: Undetermined naturf. Sporidesmium Phomatospora is a large and heterogeneous genus with epithets berkeleyi was originally collected from dead stalks of referred to the genus in Index Fungorum December Solanum on terrestrial habitats Saccardo Fallah and However, many previously described species were revised Shearer collected this species from freshwater and transferred to over 30 genera Iturriaga et al.
Studies based on phylogenetic analyses have been carried Phomatospora helvetica H. Lechat Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum J. Park, on submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium cangshanense Z. Hyde, Asexual morph: Undetermined nom. Sequence data is not Facesoffungi number: FoF available.
Su, Z. Sequence data is not cangshanense. Sporidesmium dulongense Luo et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that Sexual morph: Undetermined Sporidesmium lageniforme and S. TEF1a sequence data are available. Sporidesmium lignicola Z.
Su, Sporidesmium fluminicola H. Hyde sp. Etymology: Referring to the fungus dwelling on wood. Asexual morph Colonies effuse on natural sub- Sporidesmium gyrinomorphum Yang et al. Mycelium Distribution: Thailand, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, immersed, composed of septate, branched, brown, smooth on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream Yang hyphae.
Conidiophores 50—70 lm long, 3—4 lm wide et al. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, 17— Conidia 21—27 lm long, 4. Ostiole — lm long, 78— lm wide, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater. Peridium 30—44 lm thick, two- effuse, scattered, hairy, black. Mycelium mostly immersed, layered, outer layer comprising pale brown to brown, comprising of branched, septate, smooth-walled, brown oblong and rounded cells, inner layer comprising several hyphae.
Paraphyses 2. Asci greyish brown to dark brown, smooth. Sporidesmium lageniforme differs erumpent through the host surface, hyaline, unbranched, from S.
The asexual an apical ring and fusiform, hyaline ascospores Zhang morph of Sporidesmium lignicola can be easily distin- et al. However, Sporidesmium lignicola differs from guished from other Sporidesmium asexual morph species in S. We therefore small guttules, while S.
Hyde larette funnel-shaped. Conidia cylindrical, ellipsoid or Distribution: Thailand, Chiang Rai Province, stream obovoid, thick-walled, brown, aseptate. Paraphyses Sporidesmium pyriformatum J. Hyde present but deliquescent, irregular in width, rarely septate, Distribution: Thailand, Khiri Khan Province, Hua Hin, tapering towards the apices, embedded in a mucilaginous stream flowing outside Kaeng Krachan National Park, on matrix.
Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium submersum H. Pinruan et al. This species was apparently linked sequence data are available. This Sporidesmium thailandense Dong et al.
Tirisporellaceae, typified by a new genus Tirisporella a, b; Yang et al. Jones, K. The genus Thailan- Asexual morph: Undetermined diomyces phylogenetically resides in this family. Sporidesmium tropicale M. Togniniales Senan. Sporidesmium hyphae, single or bundled. Conidiophores branched in the tropicale was found on dead branches of woody plants and basal region or unbranched, arising from aerial or sub- is widely distributed in tropical areas Ellis ; Wu and merged hyphae, erect, nearly cylindrical when unbranched, Zhuang Conidiogenous cells mostly monophialidic, discrete or Tirisporellales Suetrong et al.
Conidia aggregated into round, slimy heads at Fungal Diversity 91 the apices of phialides, aseptate, hyaline, smooth-walled; Asexual morph Colonies on natural substrate effuse, oblong-ellipsoidal to obovate, cylindrical, allantoid or black.
Mycelium superficial. Conidiophores macronema- reniform, uncommonly fusiform-ellipsoidal or globose, tous, mononematous, erect, brown, paler towards the apex, becoming guttulate with age. Sexual morph Ascomata straight or flexuous, branched or unbranched. Culture on PDA from above h and reverse i. Paraphyses abundant, broadly cellular, slightly conical around the ostiole, papillate, dark brown to black, constricted at the septa, branching, hyaline, slightly taper- glabrous.
Peridium leathery to fragile, consisting of two ing apically or thread-like towards the apex. Asci 8-spored, regions; outer region of carbonaceous, dark brown, angular unitunicate, arising in acropetal succession, appearing to rectangular cells; inner region of hyaline, thin-walled, spicate when mature, ascal apex thickened without a dis- elongated, compressed cells.
Ostiolar canal periphysate. As- Paraphyses persistent, branched, hyaline, septate, irregular cospores mostly biseriate or in a single row, allantoid, in width. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical-clavate, reniform, cylindrical or oblong-ellipsoidal, aseptate, with long, slender stipe, broadly rounded to truncate at the hyaline. Wang Gams et al. Notes: Phaeoacremonium has recently been mono- Type species: Brachysporium obovatum Berk.
Abellini 4: Maharachchikumbura et al. Phaeoacremonium Notes: The asexual morph genus Brachysporium was species are saprobic on plants, or pathogenic on human and established by Saccardo in Gramaje et al. Many Brachysporium species were this species as Phaeoacremonium aquaticum. Mycologia 6 : Some species were also described from marine habitats, e.
Among the accepted Brachyspo- Mengla County, on submerged wood in a small stream Hu rium species, only two are known from freshwater habitats et al. Lamore and Goos ; Raja et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium obovatum Berk. ITS sequence data is : Helminthosporium obovatum Berk. Magazine of Natural History 6: Phaeoacremonium ovale Huang et al. Notes: Sequence data is not available. Sexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium nigrum Link S. Trichosphaeriales M.
Winter available. Brachysporium Sacc. Abellini 4: Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown, velvety. Myce- Unisetosphaeria Pinnoi et al. Sexual morph Ascomata subhyaline to brown hyphae. Conidiophores mononema- immersed to superficial, scattered, pyriform, hyaline to tous, macronematous, erect, straight or slightly flexuous, light brown, dark brown near the apex, coriaceous, ostio- smooth, thick-walled, septate, unbranched, cylindrical, late, papillate.
Papilla periphysate, surrounded by short brown in the bottom, paler and tapering toward the apex. Seta single, composed of several rows of brown Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, terminal, integrated, cells, arising from the ostiolar region. Peridium composed hyaline, denticulate, proliferating sympodially. Conidia of angular brown-walled cells.
Paraphyses sparse, obscure, acropleurogenous, septate, smooth, thick-walled, fusoid to comprising short rows of ovoid to oblong cells. Asci limoniform, polar cells subhyaline, narrowing at the apex, 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, short pedicellate, apically median cells brown.
Ascospores and acropleurogenous, aseptate or septate conidia Hughes 2-seriate, septate, hyaline. The Type species: Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi phylogenetic analysis show that our Neospadicoides spe- et al. Its taxonomic placement was between coidaceae Xenospadicoidales Fig. Chaetosphaeriaceae and Trichosphaeriaceae.
However, Neospadicoides aquatica Z. Su, Unisetosphaeri penguinoides has several incompatible sp. The characters of asco- number: FoF , Fig.
Thus, it was fungus. This suggestion was followed by Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Maharachchikumbura et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi et al. Mycelium partly superficial, partly immersed, Distribution: Thailand, Narathiwat Province, on sub- composed of septate, branched, smooth, pale brown merged petiole of Eleiodoxa conferta Pinnoi et al.
Sequence data is not mononematous, solitary or in groups, erect, unbranched, available. Xenospadicoidales Hern. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, integrated, terminal, sub- Xenospadicoidaceae Hern. Conidia 18—22 lm Neospadicoides Z. Asexual morph Colonies led. Mycelium partly Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Gaoligong superficial, partly immersed, composed of septate, bran- Mountain, saprobic on decaying wood submerged in a fresh- ched, smooth, pale brown hyphae.
Conidiophores water stream, July , X. Conidiogenous americana in having macronematous, mononematous, cells holoblastic, enteroblastic, percurrent, polytretic, erect, unbranched, septate, solitary or in groups conidio- integrated, terminal.
Conidia acrogenous or acropleuroge- phores paler towards the apex, integrated, terminal conid- nous, fusiform, obovoid, septate, smooth-walled.
Sexual iogenous cells and 2-septate, smooth conidia Wongsawas morph Undetermined. However, Neospadicoides aquatica differs Type species: Neospadicoides lignicola Z. Su 18—22 9 7—9 vs. Spadicoides in having effuse, hairy colonies on natural Neospadicoides lignicola Z. Su, substrate, mycelium composed of septate, branched, sp. However, Holotype: MFLU 18— Neospadicoides differs from Spadicoides in having Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater unbranched conidiophores and acrogenous or acropleu- habitats.
Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark rogenous, septate conidia while Spadicoides have branched brown. Culture on MEA, q from above, r from reverse. Scale bars: c— towards the apex, straight or slightly flexuous, cylindrical, f 50 lm, g—p 15 lm septate, smooth, thick-walled, occasionally swollen at the apex. Conidiogenous cells polytretic, integrated, terminal and intercalary, with pale colored pores remaining at the conidiogenous loci.
Conidia 7. Sexual morph towards the apex, smooth. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, Undetermined. Sexual morph coides hodgkissa in having macronematous, mononema- Undetermined. However, Neospadicoides yunnanensis or in groups, erect, unbranched, septate, straight or flexu- differs from Spadicoides hodgkissa in having pale brown ous, cylindrical, brown conidiophores paler towards the conidia with dark band at basal euseptum while Spadi- apex, integrated, terminal conidiogenous cells and obovoid, coides hodgkissa has versicolored conidia comprising a septate, guttulate conidia this study.
However, proximal euseptum and a distal distoseptum and the distal Neospadicoides lignicola differs from N. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that N. Hughes, Can. Hughes with S. Goh and Neospadicoides yunnanensis Z.
Hyde a briefly discussed the generic concept of Su, sp. Thirty-one Spadicoides species were revised, Index Fungorum number: IF , Facesoffungi of which 21 species were accepted.
Presently, 55 epithets number: FoF , Fig. Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Seven species are known from freshwater habitats habitats. Asexual morph Colonies on decaying wood Goh and Hyde a; Ho et al.
Mycelium partly immersed in the a, a, b, c; Zhuang Wang branched hyphae. Scale bars: e, imen. HMZFW Type species: Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Spadicoides atra Corda S. Hughes Res. Torrentispora Distribution: China, Hong Kong, on submerged wood comprises seven species from freshwater habitats. Zhuang Torrentispora aquatica Vijaykr. LSU sequence data is available. Hyde Torrentispora biatriispora K. Distribution: Australia, Queensland, on submerged Mill. Sequence data is not : Pseudoannulatascus biatriisporus K.
Hyde Z. This species is known only from Australia on Luo et al. Reservoir, on submerged wood Tsui et al. Distribution: France, on submerged wood of Fraxinus a.
In this study, we introduce a new species and a is presented. RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater than new combination for this genus.
Maximum parsimony have been reported from freshwater habitats. Newly generated sequences K. Hyde, comb. Ex-type strains are in bold : Barbatosphaeria aquatica N. Hyde, in Hyde et al. Sequence data is Ban Nang Lae Nai, on decaying wood submerged in a unavailable. Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Our phylo- on decaying wood of Nothofagus sp. Morphology of specimen collected from freshwater habitats PDD Hyde diophores; monoblastic, terminal, integrated conidiogenous Distribution: Brunei, on submerged wood Fryar and cells; solitary, dry, clavate, green to brown conidia, with Hyde Sequence data is not phylogenetic analyses, we synonymize Barbatosphaeria available.
This species is known only from Brunei on aquatica under Acrodictys aquatica. Su, and Hyde Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling in a Asexual morph: Undetermined stream.
Notes: Holotype ILL Sequence data is not Holotype: DLU available. This species is known only from Costa Rica, on Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater submerged wood Barbosa et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark brown to Diaporthomycetidae family incertae sedis black. Conidiophores 98— lm long, 4—6 lm wide Acrodictyaceae J.
Ellis, Mycol. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, Type species. Acrodictys bambusicola M. Ellis, integrated, terminal, cylindrical, lageniform to doliiform, Mycol. Ellis as the type species. There are 45 nous, solitary, muriform, broadly clavate, obovoid to epithets listed in Index Fungorum December Until pyriform, usually with 2—3 transverse septa and a few , identification of Acrodictys-like species was based longitudinal septa, with conspicuous pores in each cells, on morphology.
Xia et al. Culture on PDA from above j and reverse k. Sexual morph shan Mountain, saprobic on decaying wood submerged in a Ascomata immersed, globose to subglobose, dark brown to freshwater stream, October , L. Wang, S DLU black, — lm high, — lm diam. Neck black, Notes: Acrodictys fluminicola resembles the generic cylindrical, straight to slightly flexuous, converging radi- type A. Peridium 25—40 lm thick, leathery to fragile, 2-lay- ched and septate conidiophores dark brown at the base, ered.
Outer layer consisting of thick-walled, brown, narrower and paler toward the apex, solitary, muriform, polyhedral to elongate cells of textura prismatica to textura obovoid to pyriform conidia slightly constricted at the angularis, towards the interior grading into several layers of septa, with obconical basal cell and the size of conidio- thin-walled pale brown to subhyaline flattened cells. Pa- phores and conidia of these two species are almost similar raphyses septate, slightly constricted at the septa, wider Xia et al.
Phylogenetic analysis also stipe, ascal apex broadly rounded to obtuse. Ascospores 5— shows that Acrodictys fluminicola and A.
Phylogenetically, A. Heilong stream, 15 March , Z. Alegria, Liput River, on submerged bamboo culm Cai hippocrepida in having globose to subglobose, dark brown et al.
However, B. In this study, we introduce one new species and this illustration refer to Zhang et al. Sexual morph is the only known Barbatosphaeria species collected from Description and illustration refer to Liu et al. Type species: Conlarium dupliciascospora F.
Barbatosphaeria lignicola Z. Cai, Mycologia 5 : Hyde, sp. Scale bars: b 50 lm, c—g 20 lm Conlarium aquaticum Dong et al.
Type species: Riomyces rotundus A. Ferrer, A. TEF1a sequence data obtained from ex-type culture are Riomyces rotundus Ferrer et al. Cai submerged wood Ferrer et al.
Asexual morph Description and illustrations see Ariya- Riomyces Ferrer et al. Sexual morph Description and illus- Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Descrip- trations see Zhang et al. Scale bars: d, g— Type species: Junewangia sphaerospora W. The species of Junewangia are characterized by Type species: Dictyosporella aquatica Abdel-Aziz, slightly flared conidiophores with annellidic, percurrent Fungal Divers proliferation, cylindrical or narrowly cuneate conidio- Notes: Ariyawansa et al.
Seven species are accepted in the genus accommodated it in family Annulatascaceae. Junewangia and only one of them was collected from a, b introduced a sexual morph species Dic- freshwater habitats in China Song et al.
Dong, H. Hyde Junewangia aquatica H. Hu for this genus which was collected from freshwater, and Distribution: China, Yunnan Province, Mengla, stream they moved this genus from Annulatascaceae to Dia- in rubber trees field, on submerged wood Song et al. Song et al. This species is only known tioned in their study.
Our phylogenetic analysis based on from the type locality.
Windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping
After analyzing this document, the reader can easily integrate the reference design and associated materials into a competitive product. The design does not include power factor correction because of the low-cost initiative. Gokce Mehmet AY. Editor IEEJ. Marwan Abou El-ela. Pablo Rigo. Shlomo B”H. Marius Chitimus.
Sabiyulla Rahamathullah. Gautam Sarkar. Giovanni Lo Calzo. Mahmoud Amin. Ewen Ritchie. G Muni V Mahesh. Alvin Gerdy. Za Byter. Rizky Wahyu Febriyanto. Ikhsan Hadrian. Zemen Addiss. Pathirage Somadasa. Manan Shah. Brian Hadley. Ouertani Rabeb. Huynh Hao. Axinte Andrei. Marco Rivera. Wensong Yu. Ants Kallaste. Johann Kolar. Steven Bible. Akin Acar. Andrei Cozma. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping we’ll email you a reset link.
Приведенная ссылка an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Rajesh Patnaik. Related Papers.
International Journal of Engineering Research and Development. For further induction motor by using a three-phase inverter circuit. After analyzing this document, the reader can www. The design does The last chapter of this document contains a list of not include power factor correction because of the recommendations that the reader may want to further low-cost initiative.
Hardware optimizations for different types of motors and input voltages are detailed. A dynamometer and a power analyzer are used to characterize the reference design.
The entire procedure and materials described in this document will provide the reader with enough material to design a repeatable experiment. Three-phase applications can also utilize this board with minimal software changes; however, this document does not provide a detailed analysis on the results. Instructions on the setup and testing procedure of a three-phase motor are covered in this application note.
It has low starting torque and The windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping installed capacitor trades off starting current; however, it incurs inefficiencies from the torque capability at standstill with ripple torque expensive, non-polarized run capacitor. This capacitor reduction at running speed. Because windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping the high VA commonly fails before the rest of the motor, so there is rating of the capacitor, capacitors are often selected to a concern for maintenance because of this meet the minimum starting performance requirements, dependency.
For motors that do not have identical windings, it is Topology necessary to feed the two phases with different voltages.
Consequently, this raises the unable to turn without sufficient phase shift between voltage across one of the windings and causes uneven the two windings. A capacitor can be placed current flow. The нажмите для деталей is often replaced with windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping relay that can control the direction by swapping which phase leads or lags the other.
The value of the capacitor is typically specified by the motor manufacturer and is sometimes in the range of uF for motors that are less than 1 HP. The capacitor is carefully chosen in an attempt to correct the power factor for maximum power efficiency.
The voltage rating is typically high at around V, depending on the input voltage. The capacitor must not be polarized, since it is across an alternating voltage. If this capacitor fails, the motor will cease to turn. The importance of selecting the correct capacitor is therefore critical.
This topology has the benefit of being able to adjust the speed of the motor and apply the appropriate amount of voltage on each winding so that the weaker winding is not overdriven. VDC is created after rectifying the AC input. See Figure 31 for the entire system overview. Equation 2 shows a general time domain expression of a sinusoidal wave that will be used to graph and analyze the страница on the motor.
Equation 3 shows the individual inverter phases after Phase VV is considered the neutral one. Each winding applying the general representation of a time varying has VV as its reference.
As Figure 5 shows, the peak voltage is much lower The resultant waveform across the motor does not than the original V. The third fundamental is added to the sine VRMS source with capacitor.
Figure 6 shows the a look-up table with the modified values. Table 1 shows a summary of the tests conducted. Windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping and Speed To identify which method turns the 64 bit 10 download rar bagas31 windows shaft the fastest and how quickly the load will accelerate.
Efficiency To compare the real component of the output power to the input power and to measure the power factor and other inefficiencies.
These three tests cover the largest design considerations in motor control. None of больше на странице tests require a special setup from the other tests. Each analysis in the three separate tests uses the same subset of data. Equipment Table 2 lists the equipment used during the tests. Its nameplate readings can be seen in Table 3. AN This particular motor has a balanced winding configuration.
Both windings are identical in terms of resistance and inductance. The results shown in this document will differ from other motors constructed in other various ways. Test Setup The entire test setup can be seen in Figure 8.
The programmable windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping applies the test setup from the M-TEST 7 software to the dynamometer and reads the applied torque. All other windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping are performed by the power analyzer and logged. The input to the system is single-phase, two-wire All tests lasted under 60 seconds because of the risk of 1P2W voltage at V, 60 Hz. The посмотреть еще analyzer is damaging the insulation of the motor as a result of large also configured for 1P2W on its single element input.
The inverter has an optional recommendations on the subject of voltage doubler that is not used during the tests since prolonged stress testing locked rotor. When a test is running, the Property Value programmable controller adjusts the dynamometer to baixar iso windows 10 pro microsoft a specific braking force.
Before initiating a test, Switching Frequency 7. When the maximum speed for a specific Dead Band ns max. The duration of the test depends on the starting speed of the motor. When the test is complete, the power analyzer and The M-TEST software runs a dynamic ramp test with motor feedback readings are consolidated into a inertia cancellation on the motor.
A single locked rotor reading is extrapolated using 20 data points.