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Full text of “Run Magazine Issue 35”

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[Windows 10 1703 download iso itar regulations governing texas


Zany but dangerous enemies awatt your every turn. Avoid the deadly steel les and the pounding hammers. Watch out for the hungry marble munchers. Even surf a mechanical wave! Each level has Its own “person- ality” and oeaturex to contend with, as well as Its own orig- inal music score. It’s not easy being a marble – make It to the Ultimate Level and you’ll know why. How to ordan Vlilt your retailer.

Amiga version li J Box Thene It 3 day, money-bade guarantee on direct orden- For a complete product catalog. CA Commodore and Amiga are regljttred trademartit of Com mode re Builneii Mactilnej. Apple It a reglnered trademarti of Apple Computer. Screen ihoti rcpreient Commodore 64 vetiton. Otttert may vary.

Ctrcls 3 on Reader Service card. Through a lot of fat-trimming and holding the line on expenses, Commodore has dramatically im- proved its situation. The company now faces the unen- viable task of remaining profitable, while, at the same time, beefing up its services, which have suffered din- ing this cutback period.

Several op- erations have been eliminated, and the work force has been substantially reduced. The real issue is to rebuild the com- pany at the same time. Although analysts agree that the company’s turnaround efforts seem to be succeeding, no one is. Now, maybe, the critics will be silenced for a while, and Commodore can concentrate its efforts on getting back tt basics. Christmas Wish List Three things 1 wish for Commo- dore this holiday season; more ads, including a TV cainpaign; belter cus- tomer service; and a more aggressive marketing approach, particularly in the educational field.

To a certain extent, diis last wish is coming true with the recently an- nounced agreement between MECC, a reputable name in the educational market, and Commodore. According to North America gen- eral manager, Nigel Shepherd, this ar- rangement will “bring valuable educational software directly into the home” and let students “practice their computing skills at home.

The RUNning Board also features a menu formal tliai makes it easier and faster for you to select a specific section of the bulletin board. We use a stan- dard protocol, baud, one stop-bit, no parity, full duplex and a word length of eight bits. The RUNning Board is definitely worth a call. You can get on-line anytime, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, by dialing Purchasers of the 64C will receive Odell Lake, a simulation that teaches the elementary principles of ecology and biology to young students.

Other programs in the series help youngsters improve their math, read- ing and spelling skills, and even intro- duce youngsters to the elementary principles of economics.

We recently received word liiat Su- pra Corporation, an Oregon-based pe- ripheral manufacturer for the Atari computers, has purchased the rights to market and manufacture the Cardco line of Commodore peripherals.

According to Wiley, Supra will also service Cardco products not covered under warranty for a minimal charge. This venture marks the second en- try into the Commodore market for Supra, whose first effort involved dis- tributing the MPP-1 64 modem.

Ac- cording to a news release, Cardco was forced to close its doors in June when its bank called in all loans. The World Kamte Cliam- pionship” begins. It con- nects. Lights out. This time, you survived in one piece. TOth a final, championship match at the base of Mt Fuji. The Gurus of Gashes. The meanest, nastiest rowdies to These ijnmuls use ein toittan.

Throw them from the ring. Crush their heads. Slam them to the mat. Pulverize their puny bones. You’ll need over stitches if you don’t. And one day after your poor battered head resem- bles an over-cooked cabbage, you’ll be good enough to win the title. And the Champion- ship Wrestling Belt will be f 0»f h tif;ht playvrx. Atari STX64fl2B. Each month we present brief, useful computer “tricks” to help you gel the most out of your Commodore computing system — whether you’re a beginning or advanced computcrist, a C or C-I28 oimer.

Magic is a forum for RUN ‘s imagitmlive and inven- tive reaiUrs to share their programming tips, brief softtmre or hardware modifications, shortcuts or items of genial interest.

Ipa4lJ Cleaning heads— Here’s a good way lo clean disk drive heads — with a C! First, insert a cleaning disk into ihe drive and turn on the computer. Then hold down the reset switch for 30 seconds — the job’s done! Line 20 reads the values of the new characters from the data in line 30 and pokes them into the proper location. Ian Cillay Bethesda, MD! It produces a menu with reverse fields just as in some commercial programs.

Use the cursor up-and’down key to move the reverse field bar, and press return to make your selection. If you want the menu to appear somewhere other than in the up per- left corner, insert cursor movements after HS in line The variable A is the screen line on which the reverse field will be printed. The first line is line 0, the second line 1, and so on. A complete general Information storage and retrieval system with report writing, graphics, statistics, and label making capabilities.

Details inside every Timeworks package. More power for your dollar Timeworks, Inc. O 1S63 TInwworlu, Inc. All Righis Reurved. Magic Liilvig rontinued. First type POKE,0 and press the return key. Now list the block of lines you wish to delete, move the cursor to the first line number and press return to delete each line shown.

If you wish to delete more lines than will fit on the screen, just repeal the lisiand- return sequence above until all lines in the block have been deleted. After you’ve finished, you must type POKE77′],26 and press return to restore the normal List command. It provides control for you to limit the number of characters that are input. Any value from 1 to may be passed to the routine.

This means the cursor cannot move off the line you start it on by usinj; the cursor control keys. If no value is passed, then a default of 1 is used, lie sure you define the string variable you want to use as the first variable in yom- program. Pressing return will exit the Get routine. This trick works fine if you’re using an column monitor. How- ever, if the 40column monitor is in use, the computer will return an Illegal Quantity error in line Since the C Perfect Typist program already detects for 40 or 80 columns in line 25, either screen width can be handled with the following modifications.

This change sets the correct number of columns for the Window command. Now the window will be set to the proper width no matter which screen you are using. Allen L. When you attempt to draw with a negative increment such as DR. For example, I change the screen colors and the function key definitions. I use the following program to make all the changes I want at one time. The new function key definitions are very much like the old DOS wedge commands. You simply list the directory, move the cursor to the filename you want and ] ress the F2 key to load or F5 to run the program.

The PRG is automatically deleted from the end of the line. You can make any other changes you like. To make the program easy to use, I put it on each new disk I formal. Although noticeably longer than those in the Magic column, these listings are still short enough to type in easily and quickly.

Listing 1 lists the disk directory to the screen, and in- structs you to DLoad the program you want. Listing 2 is more automatic.

You enter the filename of the C program in line 10 of Listing 2 and save it to the same disk. Then, each time you load and run Listing 2 in C mode , it will load the C program in mode and tlien switch the computer into 64 mode to run it 3. Once you’ve prepared a disk, insert it into the and press the C- 1 28’s reset button. Your C program will fast- load in 1 28 mode. You can load C Basic boot programs in mode unless they contain an auto-run feature.

In that case you must BLoad, in mode, the machine language program that’s loaded by the auto-run boot; then load tlie boot afterwards in 64 mode. Once the 64 machine language program is BLoaded in mode, you can access 64 mode by typing in the direct command G Unless the boot loads more than one program when it’s executed, you can BLoad the main program in mode and use the SYS command, followed by the starting address of the program, to execute it in 64 mode.

Listing 4 is a program for finding the starting ad- dress of a C program saved on disk. Unfortunately, C programs that use an auto-run fea- ture won’t load in C mode. Start-up program. More aulomtk starl-up program. SYS addreuftmier fm ML program on disk. The RUNning Board also features a menu format that makes it easier and faster for you to select a specific section of the bulletin board. We use a standard protocol, baud, one stop-bit, no parity, full duplex and a word length of eight bits.

You can get on-line anytime, 24 hours a day, seven days a week, by dialing our new number: Q0 p«r order This oHor also valid on ponpherals and accessories urtdfjr 6 pounds.

Oidors arrtving before 1 1. Allow 2 weeks or personal check lo cloar Shipping: Sd. Add S3. PA Glrcla on Raadsr Service card. Educational computer software holds one of the greatest prom- ises for the future of home comput- ing, SubLogic Corporation’s Whole Brain Spelling is an example of an excellent progratTi that combines sound educational techniques with the advantages of computer- assisted learning.

It’s a series of spelling pro- grams that can assist everyone, from preschoolers to scientists, through the use of reinforcement techniques. The child’s version is appropriate for ages five through nine, and the general program is tar- geted for age ten through adult. Each version of the program con- tains different word lists of ten words each. A page instrucdon manual consists mainly of the listings for all of the different versions.

The program is very easy to oper- ate. It really isn’t necessary to read the instructions, although you may enjoy the material on the background of the techniques used. Whole Brain Spelling makes exten- sive U. JALA ness. The words are displayed in large, bold type, so even a color TV set can serve as a good output device for this program. You can either select a word list to study by number or just browse dirough the lists.

When you’re spelling new words, the program does an im- pressive job of analyzing your enors and bringing them to your attention. The audiors of Whole Brain Spell- ing emphasize that spelling tests are not included. Scores are not kept be- cause the program is intended as an aid. Parents purchasing the program for their youngsters should plan on su- pervising die child’s use of the com- puter and offering additional support.

You are encouraged to use internal visualization skills to improve your spelling. Research has shown that the more senses involved in the learning process, the greater the retention level for the student. For that reason, I was somewhat puzzled that the sound capabilities of the C are not used as another re- inforcement tool.

Interesting too, that the man re- sponsible for the Commodore trans- lation of the program is a musician who specializes in computer-con- trolled music synthesis. Whole Brain Spelling is an excel- lent piece of software. It appears well suited to the task of improving spell- ing skills at all levels. SubLogic Corp. An CNceptifJnal program liiar outshines all others. Very Good. Lives up to its billing. No li;is- ,slc5, headaches or disappoint- ments here.

There are better un llie market. Substandard, with many prob- lems. Should be dccpsixcd! Re- leased in , this top-notch pro- gram is not a game in the traditional sense. It’s a flight simulator that com- bines flawlessly animated graphics and an instantaneous response to user input. This creates a realistic feeling of flight that is second only to the real thing. Like the BD-5J jet airplane it lets you fly. With TImeworks you get more than software.

Plus, you get: Quick access to important informa- tion. Items can be easily retrieved and printed by name, index code, date range, amount range, or any category of information stored in the system. Plus, you get; Sideways – Prints all your columns on one, continuous sheet. Performs mathematical functions, up to 12 digits.

Allows the use of minimum and maximum values, averages, sums, integers, absolute values, and exponen- tial notation. Performs financial analysis functions calcu fates the present and future value of a dollar and the present and future value of a constant amount annuity.

O Tlmgwotki, Inc. All Righls nastrved. Circle ori Reader Service card. Software Gallery i Become airborne with Aerojet. Instead, you have a choice of icn competitive events, ranging from flal-out circuit racing to com- plcx acrobatics.

You can cither fly alone or compete against up to three others. Whenever a record-breaking performance is made in a particular event, the winning com- petitor’s name and the score achieved arc automatically saved to disk.

The top half of your screen consists of a view from the jet’s windshield, with a perpetual moving image of your plane centered there for precise alignment. The bottom half of the screen is packed with a dozen crucial instruments.

Tlic layout of your most frequently used flight controls is straightfor- ward. Your joystick is thejet’s control stick, and its fire-button serves as a solitary control for the rudder. The most fascinating and enter- taining aspect of Aerojet is that your BD-5J operates basically the same way most small aircraft do in the real world. There is no time lag between your action and thejet’s reaction.

Fly too slowly, and it will pitch up and stall; fiy inverted and your controls reverse; lower your fiaps completely and you’ll simultaneously gain lift and lose airspeed; or bank steeply at a high rate of speed and you rjet main- tains altitude.

It’s essential that you memorize the manual and learn how to keep your jet aloft and on course before you’re ready for serious competition. Begin- ning Aerojet users are sure to spend countless hours attempting to com- plete one circuit of the basic pylon course without crashing. WTiile airborne take-offs and land- ings are possible, you’ll forfeit many points if you choose to u.

If all this sounds a little overwhelm- ing, I assure you dial it really is. But one great benefit accompanying all this intensity is that you really learn how to fly an airplane.

If the measure of a flight simulator is how well it teaches you to fly, then Aerojet could not have been better made. MicroProse Software, Inc.

Their furtiier success will destroy the compu- ters, triggering a massive earthquake that will result in the usual B-movie destruction. After that introduction, however, things get more tlian a little confusing.

You are in control of the remote unit undersea tank. Your view is of the tank’s control console, which con- tains fuel gauge, clock, weapons panel, map and keyboard.

If you haven’t already been daunted by the scenario, the keyboard may do it for you. There are eight modes to the keyboard, and they will change at the twitch of a joystick, which is not always when you wish them to. It is this multiplicity of modes that prevents you from learning the game quickly, to say nothing of mastering the moves. For example, there are seven weapons in the Weapons mode, but all will not work against all tar- gets.

The game would have been as good, perhaps even better, with fewer choices. Moving from one option to another is not as straightforward as it should be.

Before you can move from A to B, you must first access the Command mode; then to move from B to C, you must return to the Command mode. In the game play, your object is to capture iJie offending computer in- stallations. Though it is never stated — because the documentation is dedi- cated almost entirely to helping you wade dirough the control command structure — you assume the game ends when you have captured or destroyed all die renegade computers, tluis pre- venting the killer quake.

The graphics and sound are good, though they are not reason enough to buy the game. Buy Quake Minus One only if you wish to get involved in a slow-moving, time-consuming game that leaves you with little or no reward. Mindscape, Inc. Ervin Bobo St. This software package comes with over 50 pages of documentation. It’s lavishly illustrated and a lot of fun to read, but Color Mail is so well laid out that you may not even have to look at the instructions.

The idea is to create a full -color, electronic greeting card. Soimd can also be added if you like. The pro- gram makes full use of both the high- resolution color graphics in the C and the talents of the SID sound chip. Continued on p. They have limited strategic depth and a limited sense o realism. That’s why ActionSoft Corporation was created.

We’re going to redefine the state of the art in simulation software. We take you from the depths of the Pacific ocean to the infinite frontiers of space. Up to now this type of realism has been available only on the most expensive military simulators.

We’re making it available to everyone. Up Periscope! ActionSoft simulations are generations ahead In strategy, action, and technology. ActionSoft simulation software sets the new prlce’performance standard against which all other simulations must now be judged.

But don’t just take my word for it. Try ActionSoft – you’ll be convinced. Clrelo tea on Rsador Senrice caid. We think you’ll find that the superior striSitfegIc play action and 30 animated graphics of this simulation put it generations ahead of the packl strategy You command a WWII fleet class subrrvarine.

Patrol the Atlantic and Pacific Ihealf es ol war. Captain John Patten’s years of US Navy service provide the submarine combat strategy missing Irom other sub simulations. Successful enemy engagements are conducted In our separate phases: 1. Approach Close to within effective weapons range 3.

When you master the daytime penscope-depth attack, move on to the dangerous and skill-demanding night surface patrol. Armament supplies include everything from a selection of old reliable Mark 10s to advanced wakeless but unpfoven Mark ta torpedoes that can be fired Irom both fore and afl torpedo tubes. Potential targets include enemy reighfers, tankers, troop ships, destroyers, andbaltleships. A complete instrument panel and split-screen views let you scan all vital Information at a glance during the heat of battle.

All major land masses and islands and even a few minor ones are properly located. Use detailed Pacific and Atlantic charts to plot your course and navigate right to the action. But be careful not to get rammed or depth- charged by enemy ships.

And try to avoid the embarrassment of sinking one of your own Allied ships or running aground on an uncharted Pacific atoll. For true submarine action and realism, nothing else compares with Up Periscope! CtrolB on RoadBr Servlcs card. L” See Your Dealer Or write Of call us or more information. For direct orders please specify which computer version you want. Include S for stiipping and specify UPS or first class mail delivery. Apple 11 is a trademark ot Apple Computer. IL circle on Readsf SotvlcocanJ.

Your choices in- clude sound effects, backgrounds, characters, symbols and much more. With your selections made, you can begin using a special editor to assem- ble the pieces into a card.

Each item can be placed in your choice of screen positions, and the commands are in- cluded on a handy stand-up refer- ence card. Many of the graphics can be ani- mated although I found that some- what of an optimistic term. The pic- tures can be made to move across the screen in accordance with a desig- nated path; however, the motion is not fluid. You can insert a waiting period be- tween different elements so that the music or effect comes at an appropri- ate moment in the presentation.

A simple text-etUting system lets you choose between two different type sizes and either black or white let- tering. Your message can be placed, one line at a time, anywhere on the screen. When all the elements are in order, you can play your greeting to see if it suits you.

If it is to your liking, a menu handles the save-to-disk operations. With your manuscript created, it’s time to mail your card. Through ar- rangements with CompuServe, Color Mail files can be sent by uploading them to another user through the Easymail system. Keep in mind that your intended receiver must also have the Color Mail program, or your greeting card file will be useless.

Furthermore, Color Mail must be customized with your CompuServe ID, so it’s not pos- sible to use a friend’s copy to view your pictures. Color Mail maintains an on-line presence. It’s also possible to obtain, for a fee, additional graphics and sound libraries directly. Color Mail opens up an oudet for creativity in electronic communica- tion.

After all, when you care enough to send the very best, why not send it electronically! Hall- mark Cards, Inc.

The three levels of difficulty are a nice touch; since no two games are alike, it’s not easy to get bored. The action menus, an attractive fea- ture of Intrigue! The joystick control option allows you to play without having to be right at the com- puter, although keyboard input is re- quired at dmes.

The object of the game is to not only find out where a genetically en- gineered polio virus has been hidden, but also to stop it from being used on Washington, DC. During the course of the game, there are a number of ways to foul up your case. Pumping characters for in- formation is a chore — especially if you say the wrong thing — because of the slow disk drive.

Be sure to watch the facial expressions when you inter- rogate your witnesses. Each character is a different fa- mous movie star from the 40s, like Humphrey BogarL They are pictured on-screen in excellent hi-res graphics. Action is taken for you if you do not move fast enough. One interesting option is the choice of the sex of your character because re- sponses to questions vary with gender.

Some characters can present a lan- guage barrier problem. The Little Black Book manual includes a Spanish glossary containing some of the for- eign terms. You can usually get a sense of what’s being said, however, by the surrounding words or sentences. The documentation does not stress basic strateg ‘, so you must search for everything. Although you cannot search an area with a character pres- ent, you can make most characters leave.

This is an exciting software pack- age that can be learned quickly. I’ve never won a complete game, probably because I’ve never correctly fingered the culprits, but I have defused the bomb at the end of the easy level!

The design and its ease of play are excellent for play- ers of all levels. I found the game challenging at times, but I enjoyed outwitting the computer. I think anyone who likes adventures or mysteries will be satis- fied with Intrigue!. Lords of Conquest, is fast; the computer whipped me soundly in about 30 minutes. It is also a game that can be saved to disk and resumed at a later date.

Wliile Lords of Conquest invites coni’ parisons with the board game, Risk, its speed and save features make it much more enjoyable. In play, Lords allows single-player action against the computer, or two to four people can play as live oppo- nents. Vou choose from one of four difficulty levels and then select the number of cities you must capture in order to win the game.

From there you can pick one of 20 maps to show the territories you wish to dispute, or, if none of those in- cluded really suit your drive to con- quer, you can go to the edit area and design your own. Control is through the joystick, and the moves here will remind you of tlie board game Othello; Good strategj’ is to select territories that will surround those of your opponent, while avoid- ing being surrounded yourself.

At the bottom of the map screen, a command box constandy apprises you of the options you have when it is your turn. You select an option by moving the joystick, and confirm your choice by pressing the fire-button.

Although the aim of the game is conquest, it’s not necessary to attack at every turn. Instead, you may plan for future attacks by redistributing re- sources, strengthening border terri- tories and, in multiple-player games, by trading and forming alliances. The key to success is not in simply blun- dering ahead witli guns blazing, but in seizing the strategic inidative. Documentation is satisfactory and includes playing tips from those who designed the game. Sound is good, consisting of musical cues that may be toggled on or off.

The graphics are more than sufficient for clarity. If the game play sounds familiar, it may be because Lords appeared a few years ago, without great success, un- der the name of BorderLands, distrib- uted by Kon Software. Electronic Arts, with its greater distribution clout, has performed a rescue operation for this highly entertaining game. How about the two Bobby Knight- led Indiana Hoosier champions fac- ing each other right on your com- puter.

Final Four College Basketball makes these and thousands of other match- ups more than pure conjecture. Work- ing from a solid and accurate statistical base, the teams are rated as teams and the players as individuals. This all-text format doesn’t use up all its memory with stick figure play- ers moving up and down the court — that chore is left to your imagination.

Instead, the space is devoted to cram- ming all the realism you could ever hope to have into an easy-to-play format. Offensively, you are the master of your own fate. You control to whom the ball is passed for about one-third of the time.

Whether your pick gets the ball in the place you’d like is a different mat- ter. When a player receives the pass, you’re given a percentage figure on his chances to hit a shot from that spot — you decide whether he takes that shot. You pick the lineups for tlie teams, but watch for signs of fatigue. Get the Continued on p. Super Sunday gives you the best Pro Football teams of all time, computer analyzed to per- form with proper guidance, just as they did in real life. Your bril- liant play calling is re-enacted on screen by all 22 players.

The additional Champions, season as well as the General Manager’s Disk make this a must for all football fanatics. Color Graphics Board required. Super Sunday S35 G. So you can imag- ine their reactions when we announced we’d discovered a new universe. People laughed. People scoffed. And they really freaked out when we told them where we’d found it: Inside a Commodore It’s called GEOS.

And it turns any Commodore into a powerful PC that holds its own against any computer, no matter what kind of fruit it was named after. GEOS: The superior mtelligence. Of course, we always knew Commodores possessed superior brains. It just took GEOS to discover them. You see, GEOS opens your Commodore to a huge universe that can hold an infinite number of applications.

Increase your speed to warp factor 7. But five to seven times faster than normal. Which lets you streak tlirough files and documents at what seems like warp speed.

And that saves you endless time. Every universe comes complete vdth a desk. It’s just like your desk at home, only without the coffee stains. The Desktop keeps your art and documents filed, and comes with all the accessories you need to keep you organized: An alarm clock keeps you punctual. A notepad keeps your memos. And a calculator keeps your accountant honest. How to communicate with a new universe. With geoWrite, you can rearrange your written words. Move blocks of copy.

Cut and paste. And even display your text in fonts of different styles and sizes, right on the screen. With geoPaint, you become a Michelangelo with a mouse. You can invert, mirror and rotate images. Insert them into your geoWrite documents. Finding your way through the universe.

The most difficult thing about a new universe is finding your way around. When GEOS offers you options, you just point to your answers and click your mouse or joystick.

You want to draw? Point and click. You want to fill in that obtuse rhomboid with an air-brushed geometric pattern in a lighter shade of pink?

Easy, huh? And in case you ever do make a mistake, GEOS backs you up with an “Undo” feature that undoes the very last command you entered. With GEOS, that’s hardly likely. Because there’s endless space in the universe for new applications. Unfortunately, there’s only so much space in this ad. So zip down to your nearest software dealer.

Tell him you want to explore the new universe in your Commodore. The name is universally knovm. To order, call OI00 eM. Allow six woeks for delivery.

The brightest minds are working at Berkeley. And these are just the first. The number of satellites in the GEOS universe is infinite. Judge Font Pack on looks alone. Let’s face it. People judge your work not only by what it says, but how it looks. That’s why we devel- oped Font Pack. A collec- tion of 20 different type styles that not only say what you mean, but really look like they mean it.

Boolt is all business. FuiitlCrisisc is financial. And Telegraph is. Look what we found in your desk. You know how there’s always one drawer in your desk that’s filled with really neat stuff? Well, GEOS has one of those, too. It’s called Desk Pack.

The Desk Pack Calendar pops up whenever you need to plan your schedule. And when you can’t deal with work, Desk Pack deals the sharpest Black Jack game this side of Vegas, complete with graphics and sound effects. The GEOS universe is expanding. And we’ll report each new dis- covery to you as it occurs. And see how much you can explore.

Allow six weeks for delivery. Please s[M;cify. Runs on C;C12H. Runs nn C, C Name Address. Vrmci include postage and handling. US Fundi on US tunli onl.

Missing any of these hot selling back issues of ReRUN? While quantities last, you can get every ReRUN published. Enjoy the most popu- lar RUN programs on cassette or disk!

It’s as easy as fill- ing out the coupon, or calling In NH, dial As part of tlic world’s largest commercially available telejirocessing network of Cencrnl MIeftric Information Services c;onipany, GHnie won’t bite into your biicisei. Evenings, weekends, tiolidays. There’s more! Meet friends old and new with GEnic’s liveWire'” CH simulator or exchange messages with electronic mail service. Schedule a trip with the online travel seri’ice. Get the latest in domestic and international computing neu s.

All this and there’s more to come. Check out the ehan. Compare the savings for yourself. Ilpm-t, ,ijp? Get online with GEnie. Sign up todiy! Have your Visa, MasterCard or checking account number re;idy. Set you r m ocleni for 1 jcal echo half duplex l or baud. Dial When connected, enter 1 li If i 4. Need help or more information?

No motlem yet? We can help. Call GEnie” Stay online longer, for less. So, What’s the Bottom Line? So, it’s time to talk about spread- sheets again. In this first of two articles, I’ll describe what spread- sheets are and what they’re used for. Accompanying the article are a table outlining spreadsheet features and a list of cotmriercially available spreadsheet pro- grams.

Next month, I’ll present an application template for use with your own spreadsheet. Spreadsheets are actually nothing new. There are clay tablets from Babylonian and Egyptian times that can be classified as spreadsheets, and, of course, spread- sheets have been done laboriously with paper and pencil for years. Now they come in electronic form. Everyone who’s had a computer for more than a few weeks has heard of electronic spreadsheets, but to many they remain a mystery,.

However, just about anyone can find a spreadsheet progiam useful. A spreadsheet operates on a template, a matrix of rows and columns whose intersections are called cells. Each cell holds numbers, text or a formula that relates or operates on ihe contents of other cells. You read the spreadsheet from left to right and top to bottom. The last column and bottom row usually contain totals or summations of the information in the other columns and rows, and any changes you make in the spreadsheet show up there.

If a ceil holds a formula, what you actually see on your display is the value that results from that formula’s calculations, unless you type in a command to view the formula itself.

Formulas can be cjuite complex. Imagine a whole sheet filled with these interdependent cells. A change in one value can ramify throughout. Householders and businesspeopic often use this “ripple” effect to ask “what-if juestions about their financial situations. For instance, if you were planning to buy a house, you could use a home-budget template to predict how big a mortgage payment you could add to your expenses.

You’d enter various possible pay- ments into the template; then the spreadsheet program would calculate the impact of each on your budget. Before personal computers came along, this kind of exercise used up eons of time and oodles of erasers. Spreadsheets can be quite large. Typically, they pro- vide more cells than there is memory in the computer to handle them.

The number of cells you can actually use depends on the length of the text and formulas in the cells. Most programs give you a way to see how much memory you have remaining at any time. A typical commercial-quality spreadsheet for Uie C’64 has space for 64 columns and rows — that is, over 16, cells. Probably only 5 to 10 percent of those are us- able at any one time.

Naturally, with a C you can fill more cells, and larger-capacity spreadsheets should soon appear that take advantage o Comtnodore’s new R. You view and manipulate a spreadsheet through a window in the video display that lets you sec only a small part of it at one time. The C provides a win- dow of 80 columns by 2. Some spreadsheets do program in an column option for the C Commands for tnov- ing the window rapidly around should be among the first you learn when you start using this handy tool.

If you’re in the market for a high-quality, professional spreadsheet program, one of those on the list accoiii’ panying this article should fill your needs. If you’d like to try out a spreadsheet before buying a commercial one, you can use the CalcAid 64 program that appears elsewhere in this issue of RUN. As a matter of fact, many people may find that CalcAid is all they’ll ever need. SI Address all author con’esponde-nce to Joseph J. At each intersection there’s a cell. For instance, a matrix 10 rows by 10 columns would contain cells.

Cell; A “holding box” that contains the information numeric value, text label or formula for a Specific location in the matrix. Names of rows, columns and cells; I’o identify where you are on die spread- sheet, rows and columns are named with either numbers or letters.

In some spreadsheets, columns are numbered, starting at zero and progressing by one from the left side. The rows begin with A and continue through the alphabet down from the lop line.

Other spreadsheets use the same ba- sic scheme, but with numbers for the rows and letters for the columns. For instance, in the first scheme I described, the name for the Home cell upper-left corner would be AO. The name for the cell in the 27th row and 35th column wouid be. The first column is 0, so the 35th col- umn is numbered M. In addition to this convenient meiliod for naming cells, some spreadsheets such as Microsoft Mult plan by Epy.

For die most part, however, you’ll work with the conventional row- column names lor cells. Value; A number. Label: Text that identifies or clarifies numbers on the spreadsheet.

Arithmetic Operators; Symbols for the arithmetic operiUions, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, scjuaring, cubing, and so forth. They are used in spreadsheet formulas. Mathematical Functions; C perations that also appear in spreadsheet forinuhis such as summing a row or column, find- ing maximum and niinimum values, or figuring percentages, averages and means.

Higher-order functions include gieater than, less than, equals, s uarc root, absolute value, integer value, logs either base e or ba. Paging: This convenient feature lets you jump your cursor to the next adjacent screen in any direction in one move, rather than repeatedly hitting the cur- sor keys.

Pages: Some programs can handle mul- tiple pages of spreadsheet information, rather tlian just one sheet. This way you can do calculations between pages, such as adding the contents of a cell on one page to the contents of a cell on another and putting the result on still a third page.

Since the other pages are usually stored on disk, tliis operation can be painfully slow because of all the disk accesses necessary. GOTO or jump to another cell: This fea- ture a! Menu and help screens; Menus display your currently available options; help screens display infornuuiou on wiuit you can or cannot do at any given moment. Both menu and help screens are designed to keep you from getting stranded in the middle of an operation without knowing what to do next.

Automatic cursor advance; This feature saves ke ‘strokes when you’re entering a lot of data. Normally, you’d enter the data for each cell and then hit the return key, but with this feature you enter the data and hit a cursor key, which places the data in the cell where the cursor is located, then advances the cursor to the next cell in the direction of the cursor key selected.

Home Key; With most spreadsheets, hit- ting the home key once moves the cursor to die top-left cell of the screen, and hitting it twice moves it to the top-left cell of the spreadsheet. However, this function may vary somewhat among spreadsheets. Clear, or blank, a cell: This feature erases the contents of the cell under the cursor, or even a range of cells.

Edit cells: Most spreadsheets let you edit the contents of a cell. Usually you hit a special key to go to Edit mode, and then you can edit the cell contents just as you would with an ordinary screen editor. Clear the sheet: This function erases the contents of all the cells on the spread- sheet — a fast way to get a blank slate to work on. Most spreadsheets use the clear key for this, atid will ask you “Are you sure?

Cell formatting — individual and global: The formatting function is for selecting how the values and text labels that you enter will appear in both the screen dis- play and the printout. Individual format sets up a single cell; global format sets up cither a whole row or column, or the entire spreadsheet. Normally, global for- mats do not oveiride individual forinats, so you can change the general format of a sheet without destroying any special- case cells.

You can change these arrangements with this for- mat command. It’s most often used on an individual cell, row or column, but could be done globally, as well. S: DispUtys values in dollars-and-cents format two decimal places.

Scientific: Displays numbers in scien- tific notation. This is useful when working with large numbers that vvon’t fit into the colinnn width you’ve se- lected.

Some spreadsheets default to sci- entific notation when numbers become too large to display. Maximum precision: This, the comput- er’s ordinary floating-point format, dis- plays numbers with as many decimal places as are required or as will fit into the selected column width.

It’s a display for- mat only, not affecting the precision of numbers in calculations, and it’s die de- fault format for almost all spreadsheets. Set- ting it to 2 would be die same as S format. Other spread- sheets let you select the column-display widtli for individual columns my prefer- ence. By changing die column width, you can display more or less of your spread- sheet on the screen or printout Titles: Rows and columns can have ti- des, and he titles can be locked in place on the screen so that they remain in position as you scroll through the spread- sheet.

Once you’ve used this feature, it’s difficult to get by without it. Graphics: You can set the contents of a row or column to display as hi-res or lo-res graphics on the screen or in a printout. This is useful when you’re making presentations to other people. You can highlight a cell, row or column by displaying it in a selected color. You can retain long lines of text by continuing them through more than one cell, but then, when you change column widths, strange gaps will appear in the text.

This is especially conve- nient for placing long tides or conniients at the top or bottom of a spreadsheet where tliere’s no danger of overwriting information in adjacent cells. I have a friend who actually uses his spreadsheet as a word processor by us- ing this feature! If you don’t want auto- matic cotitimiations into adjacent cells, you specify short.

Insert or delete rows and columns: You will need this feature if you fmd that you need an extra row or column in the mid- dle of what you’ve already done on a spreadsheet, or if you want to delete some rows or columns you were using only as a scratch pad. Fortunately, die program will make these adjustments for you automatically. This is fine for small sheets, but lakes impossibly long for large sheets. For the latter, and for entering a lot of data on a new sheet, select Manual mode, so the spreadsheet won’t recalculate until you actually tell it to do so by pressing the recalcu- late key.

Order of recalculation; Most spread- sheets calculate down one entire col- umn, then move to the next column and do it again. On occasion you may want to use this feature to calculate row by row instead of column by column. The order of recalculation can be important if a cell formula references a cell in some succeeding column.

The “shoc and awe” attac was newsworthy not only because of the governmental and media hype beforehand, but also for the more than 1 missiles and bombs that were exploded by the US military forces on selected targets in and around Baghdad on the night of 20 March Rapport, a. Figure 6. Although president George W.

Bush already enjoys “important person” status in terms of newsworthiness, his Than sgiving visit to his troops in Baghdad Lamprecht, b:6 was a fail-safe move to ensure wide media coverage, especially because of the clandestine nature of the visit. Figure 7. President Bush serves his troops Photo: Associated Press, a.

Media agenda. Stories that set or fit the news organisation? Global coverage of Gulf War II shows clear differences in the news agendas. Figure 8. Newspapers of 22 March Newseum, Stories about subjects already in the news. One of the most prominent series of follow-up stories during Gulf War II dealt with “weapons of mass destruction”, the presumed presence of which was given by the US and UK as raison d?

Figure 9. The continued search for weapons of mass destruction Photo: CNN, She condensed and integrated these models into a detailed model of gate eeping, which agreed with McNelly that news flow through various channels to news organisations, such as w ire services, newspapers and television networ s, where the messages are either reje cted or selected and adapted before it is passed on to the next person or organisation. Recognising the complexity of the gate eeping process, Shoema er ac nowledged the distinct traits and characteristics of the gate eeper?

These idiosyncrasies are based on the individuals? Figure Intra-individual gate eeping processes illustration redrawn as in Shoema er, For example , when veteran Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus questioned whether the US governm ent had proof that Saddam was hiding weapons of mass destruction, his editors refuse d to publish his story and only did so when forced by assistant managing editor Bob Woodward Kurtz, Reporters accused the Washington Post of printing government views on the front page, while anything contradicting the administrat ion was placed “on A18 on Sunday or A24 on Monday” Kurz, Gate eeping within an organisation is embedded in communication organisational characteristics illustration redrawn as in Shoema er, The demands of influential forces outside news organisations are equally importa nt in news selection Shoema er, In Iraq embedded reporters had to comply wi th the Pentagon ground rules, which prohibited the publication of information on e.

Because Fox News correspondent Geraldo Rivera bro e these rules by drawing a map in the sand indicating his location with the st Airborne unit relatively to Baghdad, as w ell as their destination, he was as ed by the Pentagon to voluntarily leave Iraq Plant e, In this section of the model, Shoema er also made provision for the “groupthin ” phenomenon first described by psychologist Irving Janis in , who defined it as a mode of thin ing that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.

This phenomenon is of particular interest in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom , as two prominent US newspapers, namely Washington Post Kurtz, and The New Yor Times both used the word “groupthin ” when apologising for their erroneous reporting on weapons of mass destruction as justification for the war on Iraq.

As indicated in Figure 12, surviving news items that were fashioned to suit the needs and characteristics of the organisation, are subsequently either transmitted dir ectly to the audience, or passed to a next news organisation, where it is subjected to a simi lar series of gate eeping procedures Shoema er, Gate eeping between organisations is embedded in social system ideolo gy and culture and is influenced by social and institutional factors illustration redrawn as in Shoema er, The first section of Shoema er?

The Sunday Times had their own unilateral reporter in Baghdad Schoona er, , which cut down considerably the number of gates and the consequent sifting and alterations to the messages.

The Star as part of the inte rnational 18 Independent group, received its reports from sister publications in the United K ingdom Harber, , which to an extent also reduced the number of external gates.

Al l the other newspapers, however, relied solely on agency material, which some newspape rs adapted to their readership, while others, such as The Citizen, published wire r eports without rewriting them. As indicated by the feedbac loops in Figure 12, news organisations do not act i n isolation, but form part of the ideology and social system in which they functio n, and their news agenda is therefore subjected to sanctioning by their audience as representatives of this community Shoema er, They are also under pres sure from external institutions such as advertisers, shareholders, and government bod ies.

The extent of these pressures can best be illustrated by the dismissal of Pulitz er Prize winning news correspondent Peter Arnett by US broadcaster NBC after he made crit ical comments about the US war effort when interviewed on Iraqi television Sales, 20 Initially NBC defended Arnett, but within 24 hours yielded to outside pressure t o fire their only correspondent in Baghdad. A news organisation? During Operation Iraqi Freedom, this played a crucial role in the coverage by the different South African media companies: while Johnnic?

It would have been ideal to have someone there. Only your own person nows what will spea to your readers,? But when we loo ed at the resources required to do it ourselves, we decided it wasn? Once a message has passed through a “gate”, it is transferred to the next gate e eper in the news flow channel, and lastly to the audience, as a news story.

Through sele ction and the assignment of salience by e. This ability was first recognised by newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann, who referred to “the pictures in our heads” in his boo Public Opinion Lippmann, : “The only feeling that anyone can have about an event he does not experience is the feeling aroused by his mental image of that event”? This view was confirmed in by US sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld and Robert Merton who referred to one of the mass media’s roles in society as “statu s- conferral” function, which means that the mass media confer status on public issues, persons, organizations, and social movements.

Common experience as well as research testifies that the social standing of persons or social policies is raised when these command favorable attention in the mass media Examining this idea in his boo The press and foreign policy, which dealt w ith the media’s role in the foreign policy decision-ma ing process, Bernard Cohen, a pol itical scientist from the University of Wisconsin, observed that the press “may not be successful much of the time in telling people what to thin , but it is stunningl y successful in telling its readers what to thin about” : It is here, in the description of the political environment and the suggestion of the policy alternatives that give the best promise of managing the environment, that we shall find the press playing such an important role in current thin ing about foreign policy For most of the foreign policy audience, the really effective political map of the world?

It was US reporter and author Walter Lippmann? By the emphasis placed on events through coverage, the media indicate the importance of an issue to the public, which sets an agenda for public attention and consequently lays the foundation for the public? It must be noted that the term “agenda”, according to McCombs , is not int ended to imply that a news organisation has a premeditated, often evil, “agenda” that it pursues relentlessly, but is merely a descriptive term, referring to the result over tim e of numerous day-to-day decisions by all the gate eepers in a news organisation, fro m the reporter in the field to the sub-editor and the editor.

It includes the influenc e of advertisers, shareholders, company directors, and the organisation? That the line-up of issues on the public agenda was very similar to the line-up of issues that was in the new coverage of the previous month McCombs, According to McCombs newspapers provide various cues about the salience o f a particular news event through the placement of a report on a page, the page it i s printed on, and the size of the headline, for example.

When the same cues regarding the importance of an issue recur over a period of days, wee s, months, or even longe r, it becomes possible to identify the agenda of a news organisation. Since that first study almost four decades ago, and more than empirical stud ies later Weaver, , the agendasetting theory has expanded into five distinct sta ges McCombs, ; McCombs, These are:?

The idea of fi rst level agendasetting resulted from the theory initiated by McCombs and Shaw after their Chapel Hill research project which dealt with the prominence or salience of objects: “public issues, political candidates, other public figures. It could be any set of objects that you might be interested in” McCombs, Other first level agendasetting studies include those by Winter and Eyal , Iyengar and Kinder , Eaton and Brosius and Kepplinger When people are in an unfamiliar situation, they experience a “need for orientat ion” which ma es them turn to the news media to orient themselves McCombs, Highly nowledgeable people will be less li ely to be influenced by the news age nda, but interested people who have little nowledge would have a strong need for orientation, resulting in a very strong correspondence between the media agenda and those people’s opinions about an issue.

In recent years, studies of agendasetting increasingly moved away from first level agendasetting, or the media telling the audience ”what to thin about”, to focus on second level or attribute agendasetting, which means the me dia is telling the audience “how to thin about” issues or objects Sheafer, Stated differently, while the first level of agendasetting refers to the transmi ssion of object salience, a second level of agendasetting involves the transmission of at tribute salience, which in fact may guide people in what to thin McCombs, An “object” refers to for example topics, issues, and persons, which may each have various attributes, i.

Just as objects may be presented by the news media as more or less important, so too may attributes vary in salience, which ma es them equally powe rful as agendasetting tools. Perhaps a quic way to summarize the difference between the basic agenda- setting effect, and what’s now come to be called attribute agendasetting, is in terms of Lippman’s phrase “the pictures in our heads”.

The object agenda, in effect, says “What are the pictures about? What are they pictures of? What does this really loo li e? Second level agendasetting studies e. According to McCombs quoted in Sheafer, two broad groups of attributes can be identified at the second level of agendasetting, namely 22? Empirical studies, however, do not draw a clear distinction between cognitive an d affective attributes Sheafer, Other recent studies on second level agendasetting include those by Scheufele 2 , Golan and Wanta and Kiousis This means that the salience of an object or its attributes in the stories publi shed by one medium will be mirrored by other media.

Once it became obvious that media reports influence the public’s perception of t he importance of various issues, media researchers wanted to now who is responsibl e for the media’s agenda McCombs, This is a complex question with many answers : most importantly, the media’s agenda is shaped by news values and journalistic tradition. The agenda is also shaped by outside influences, such as various sour ces: press spo espersons, government officials, politicians, and the ubiquitous publi c relations agencies.

However, an agenda is also shaped by the whole mix of different media – the relationship that exists, for instance, between blogs and news media, both Internet and traditional When the news focuses on a problem, the public? Weaver Indiana Universit y , Maxwell E. Although Weaver et al. Kinder associated the effects of televi sion agendasetting with perceptions of the US President “in a demonstration of what s ome cognitive psychologists have called priming?

Priming is similar to first level agendasetting, but goes further by addressing the effect of these agendas on the audience’s perceptions of an issue Lee, It begs the question: “What are the consequences of creating these pictures in the public’s mind?

According to this view, people will theref ore ma e evaluations or judgements based on what they regard as being more important , or what is discussed most in the media, as this information is the easiest to acces s. It must be noted that some authors disagree with the notion that priming is an e xtension of agendasetting, e. This relationship is apparent from McCombs’s definition, which describes framing as the selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object is discussed.

A generally accepted definition of framing is, however, problematic. Although th ere exists abundant literature on framing? Rather, frame analyses are a number of related, even though sometimes partially incompatible methods for the analysis of discourses Scheufele, American sociologist Erving Goffman is one of the first scholars to de fine framing, which he explains as the many ways in which the media create the contex t within which the audience may “locate, perceive, identify and label” world affai rs, in other words, to ma e sense of those events.

Columbia University Journalism and Sociology Professor Todd Gitlin poin ts out that the largely invisible frames organises the world for journalists, who r eport on world events, by enabling them to quic ly and routinely process large amounts of information. Conversely, frames also help the audience to understand the world. On the contrary, some form of media frame is essential to the understanding of the world?

Frames, then, define problems? In order to analyse frames present in coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom, it is necessary to decide on an applicable frame. This is rather problematic, as just li e the definition of framing is vague in literature Scheufele, ; Hyun, ; Ki nder, , so is the identification of frames: “We are not told how to identify a frame” Carvalho, This “conceptual conundrum” often leaves it to the researcher to “propose their own definition of frames and approaches to framing study before t hey begin their research” Hyun, Alternative frames are represented by a single presentation of a sentence or two , reminders of how an issue might be understood.

This study focuses on how international news flows and not on the effects of the news on the audience. Therefore, framing devices are particularly important to this r esearch.

In this regard, American public relations scholar Kir Hallahan proposes three types of frames, of which the last is especially interesting for the purposes of this study:? Coalition forces were characterised as freedom loving, wor ing hard to avoid civilian casualties and see ing to protect religious diversity The Iraqi military were meanwhile depicted as brutal, tyrannical, corrupt, unethical and deploying? Saddam Hussein and his sons, li e a gang of Hollywood rustlers, were given forty eight hours to get out of town Knight, 1, There are many reasons for the use of the story frame in the production of news.

It is employed to attract attention by provo ing feeling in the audience, “inducing hi m to feel a sense of personal identification” Lippmann, It is also a consequenc e of the mass media’s continuous need for more news Boorstin, To satisfy this need, “bogus dramas and humbug heroes” are created which spawn an “empty world of celebrity” Hanson, We expect new heroes every season, a literary masterpiece every month, a dramatic spectacular every wee , a rare sensation every night Boorstin, Whenever things grew quiet on t he war front, he used the time “to explain again who’s the good guy and who’s the bad g uy”.

The usefulness of the story fram e was tested by Massachusetts Institute of Technology political scientist Alan J. Beri ns y and Kinder in their study of the decision ma ing process. They found that citizens understand particular event sequences when they can organize the relevant information into coherent stories. Political leaders, analysts a nd government officials tend to frame their views and statements? In a study on how people ma e sense of politics, Berins y and Kinder found that when information is framed as a good story, the audience’s understanding of the data changes, which in turn appears to shape opinion.

These frames do not need to present strong arguments for one side or another in order to change public opinion. Small and subtle differences in the presentation of information can sometimes do the tric. Berins y and Kinder declares that [a] good frame is at its heart a good story.

To understand why some frames succeed and others fail, we need to understand what ma es an effective story. Evidence is unscrambled. Causal and intentional relations are established. Gaps are filled. Plot turns are identified. Thus, the story frame is a useful device to create desired perceptions about cur rent issues, and its utilisation as a strategic tool is advocated by US military scho lars William Casebeer and James A.

Russell : if military force is to play the appropriate role in our national security strategy and the? Global War on Terror,? Because the story frame has become a weapon in the hands of government officials and military strategists who use the media to disseminate carefully constructed tale s Payne, , it became imperative to determine what the elements of a good story ar e. As such, Propp’s schema will be used in this study to demarc ate the story frame to be used in the analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom media coverage.

He bro e down fol tales into their “small component parts” and identified eight character types Table 1 and 31 basic elements or “functions” Table 21, next page in the stor ies Propp, , Table 1. Propp’s dramatis personae? Propp’s 31 basic functions Propp, 1. One of the members of a family absents himself from home. An interdiction is addressed to the hero.

The interdiction is violated 4. The villain ma es an attempt at reconnaissance. The villain receives information about his victim. The villain attempts to deceive his victim as to capture him or his belonging s. The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps his enemy. The villain causes harm or injury to a member of a family. One member of a family either lac s something or desires to have something. Misfortune or lac is made nown; the hero is approached with a request or c ommand; he is allowed to go or he is dispatched.

The see er agrees to or decides upon counteraction. The hero leaves home. The hero is tested, which prepares him to receive either a magical agent or helper. The hero acquires the use of a magical agent. The hero is transferred, delivered, or led to the whereabouts of an object o f search. The hero and the villain join in direct combat. The hero is branded.

The villain is defeated. The initial misfortune or lac is liquidated. The hero returns. The hero is pursued.

Rescue of the hero from pursuit. The hero, unrecognized, arrives home or in another country. A false hero presents unfounded claims. A difficult tas is proposed to the hero. The tas is resolved.

The hero is recognized. The false hero or villain is exposed. The hero is given a new appearance. The villain is punished. The hero is married and ascends the throne. When these elements are distilled into a simpler form, the most common story tol d is that of a villain who harms a victim, prompting the hero to go on a quest.

The h ero receives a magic agent from a donor, which he uses to defeat the villain in orde r to right the initial wrong and ultimately to win the hand of the princess Propp, While these stories have enduring appeal as fairytales, they also form the bac b one of popular cinema. During Operation Iraqi Freedom the author, as an ordinary member of the global audience, was struc by the strong “story-li e” coverage by the media.

Broadly spea ing, the events in Iraq were apparently framed by the Anglo-American news media? This fits comfortably into Propp? In this case, President George W.

Bush is the indisputable hero. The W all Street Journal described Bush as not only of strong moral character himself, but? He sees rights and wrongs? In his January State of the Union address, Bush pledged: Whatever action is required, whenever action is necessary, I will defend the freedom and security of the American people Bush, a.

According to White House spo esperson Ari Fleischer a , however, nobody, but nobody, is more reluctant to go to war than President Bush? He hopes it can be averted, but he is also clear about the fact that one way to save American lives is to prevent Saddam Hussein from engaging in something that can be far, far worse than the price we saw on September Despite this reluctance, Bush b told the press at his ranch in Texas: I’m going to continue doing the job the American people expect, which is to safeguard America and Americans My job is to protect the American people I’ve got my mind on the peace and security of the American people.

And I will do that Bush, c. For this, the US Senate and House of Representatives gave him the authority to ta e the necessary actions against international terrorists and terrorist organizations, including those nations, organizations or persons who planned, authorized, committed or aided the terrorist attac s that occurred on September 11, or harbored such persons or organizations The White House, The hero is often assisted by a trustworthy side- ic Propp, ?

The villain. Saddam Hussein is the villain in this tale, “the man who tried to ill my dad”, according to George W. Bush, referring to an alleged plot to assassinate B ush Senior in Kuwait in Lyon, With his dar suit, fedora and moustache, the gun-toting Saddam Hussein apparently fits in his frame as a Brando-esque villain Photo: CNN, In the words of Bush?

Richard Perle, chair of the Department of Defense? His brutal rule includes slaughter, rape, mutilation and the destruction of families? Saddam is wor ing feverishly to acquire nuclear weapons Perle, a. The Iraqi leader? Even Saddam? Much the same images were portrayed during Gulf War I, when Saddam was referred to as a Hitler, a dictator, a military strongman, a madman who was a menace to worl d peace and the American way of life, a beast and a monster that Bush Senior had t o destroy Kellner, The victim or princess.

In his 7 October speech in Cincinnati Bush l aid a perfect foundation for the future portrayal of the American nation as a victim i n the Gulf War II “fairytale”, who must be saved from the villain. In this speech, Bush rem inded the American people of 11 September , when America felt its vulnerability?

We resolved then, and we are resolved today, to confront every threat, from any source, that could bring sudden terror and suffering to America. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, US government officials often reminded the American people of the tragedy of 11 September, thereby framing them as the victim: vulnerable and in need of a saviour Photo: New Yor Newsday, We now that the regime has produced thousands of tons of chemical agents, including mustard gas, sarin nerve gas, VX nerve gas.

Saddam Hussein also has experience in using chemical weapons. He warned that if Iraqi could obtain the smallest amount of enriched uranium, it could produce a nuclear weapon in less than a year: We’ve experienced the horror of September the 11th. We have seen that those who hate America are willing to crash airplanes into buildings full of innocent people.

Our enemies would be no less willing, in fact, they would be eager, to use biological or chemical, or a nuclear weapon Bush, These views were repeated in January , when Bush again reminded the American people of their vulnerability and the threat Saddam posed: because of Al Qaeda connections, because of his history, he’s a danger to the American people, and we’ve got to deal with him before it is too late CBS, b. The quest. The hero? Bush was quoted saying that Saddam was producing and hiding weapons that would enable him to dominate the region and intimidate “the civilized world?

He continued to say that if Saddam? The safety of the American people depends on ending this direct and growing threat Bush, d. Bush announced the start of the war from the Oval Office, and told his nation that his quest was to disarm Saddam in order to protect the Americans Photo: The Boston Globe, a.

That duty falls to me as commander-in-chief by the oath I have sworn, by the oath I will eep. The terrorist threat to America and the world will be diminished the moment that Saddam Hussein is disarmed Bush, e.

The donor. The US government acted as the donor of the magic agent that helped t he hero in his quest. The US Congress recognised “the threat to [their] country” an d “voted overwhelmingly? Fully supportive of the war, despite a few in-house squabbles, “the House and Senate have been doing more cheerleading than debating or legislating when it comes to war-related issues” s ince the bombs started exploding over Baghdad St.

Louis Post-Dispatch, Congress exercised its war power “by building and maintaining the military throu gh the budget? The reason given for this united front was that once U. Congress is not li ely to leave them in a lurch St. In this instance, the US military acted as the magic agent prov ided by the government, the donor, to aid the hero in succeeding in his quest. This “mag ic agent” was described in the media as an “immense force” that Bush was about to unleash Walcza , , acting with “breathta ing precision, almost eyewatering speed, persistence, agility and lethality” Sullivan, a in order to “to dis arm Iraq, to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger” Bush, g.

President Bush gives the thumbs-up sign to his troops, framed as the magic agent with which he planned to obliterate the villain Photo: The Boston Globe, b. The “peace of a troubled world” became the responsibility of the US military as Bush promised Saddam that he will use the “full force and might of the US military” a gainst him, referring to the coalition troops, six carrier battle groups, and m ore than aircraft that were ready to “pummel Iraq” Walcza , As the offensive stages of the war drew to a close, Bush told the troops onboard USS Abraham Lincoln tha t we have fought for the cause of liberty and for the peace of the world.

Our nation and our coalition are proud of this accomplishment, yet it is you, the members of the United States military, who achieved it Because of you our Nation is more secure. Because of you the tyrant has fallen and Iraq is free Bush, h. The victory. This was the moment when the “magic agent” brought the evil villain to a fall in a scene rich in symbolism: the US tan s rolling up to the statue on the Al Firdos square , a Marine covering the face of Saddam with the American flag, then removing it to r eplace it with the Iraqi flag, the Iraqis trying but not succeeding to pull down the st atue, the US Marines coming to the rescue, the giant Saddam that dominated the scene bowing t o the American forces, falling, and ultimately revealing that it is nothing but an emp ty shell.

The fall of this last statue became symbolic of the fall of the Iraqi government , even though Saddam himself had not been captured at that stage CNN, c. The Whit e House and 10 Downing Street agreed that these images did not represent the end o f the war and, in Blair? When as ed by the media when the instant of victory might come, the reply was: ” I thin we will now that moment when we see it”.

Instead, in another mad e-for- the-media scene, reminiscent of the film Top Gun, Bush dressed in a green flight suit and holding a helmet, got off a navy plane after it landed on the aircraft carri er USS Abraham Lincoln CNN, d.

Despite the perception that the war ended when the statue was toppled in the heart of Baghdad, Bush received a hero? Hours later, he told the carr ier? This message was however overshadowed by Bush? Although this happened outside the time frame of this study, it can be argued th at the hero, Bush, finally won the hand of the victim or princess, namely the American people, when they re-elected him as president in the elections.

Firstly, it was established why a theoretic al approach is necessary for a study of practical journalism. The news flow models of gate eeping, agendasetting and framing were subsequently examined. The process o f gate eeping was discussed with special reference to Harcup and O? Neill’s updated version of Galtung and Ruge’s model of selective gate eeping, as well as Pamela Shoema er’s model, while agendasetting was studied in terms of McComb’s five stages of agendasetting. An exploration of framing failed to ident ify a single generally acceptable definition of the concept, but it was determined tha t various authors agreed that news may be framed as a story.

Consequently, Vladimir Propp’ s seminal analysis of fol tales was discussed and applied to general covera ge of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Also, studies are examined that employ story analyses reminiscent of Propp’s fairytale analysis to investigate news coverage. The primary objective of a literature review is to determine what has been done in the field of study and could therefore actually be referred to as a “scholarship rev iew” Mouton, The current study commenced in , shortly after Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Due to the recency of the war, completed studies of news coverage during the war was practically non-existent, with the exception of Hafez’s case study of the effects of military involvement in conflict perception. Initially, therefore, the review of scholarship on the ey issues of news flow and gate eeping, agenda setting and framing was done on studies that had nothing to do with either Gulf War II i n general or specifically Operation Iraqi Freedom, but which showed similarities i n some respect.

However, by the end of the current study, a large corpus of research on Gulf War II news coverage became available in academic journals. These scholarships were reviewed post hoc, and the most relevant wor s are included in this study for th e sa e of completeness. In other words, much of the literature was reviewed not to determi ne possible duplication of research or the methodology used by those authors as it is done traditionally Mouton, , but to indicate various approaches that were fo llowed in studies that ran parallel to the current study.

Interestingly, shortly before the present study was concluded, the first results from a similar study conducted in the UK was published. The study by Robinson et al. The Robinson et al. Literature employed in the current study covers a wide field, as the study itsel f deals with war reporting from different angles, which necessitates a wide range of sou rces: 39? Scholarly documents and monographs were consulted to support the theoretical approach to the study. Boo s, newspaper and magazine articles were included in the historiographical part of the study, but also in the theoretical study.

Official documents from the US government were included to prove the intentionality of media management practices during the war. Interviews were conducted to give eyewitness accounts of the result of the med ia policies. Video recordings of the television coverage of the war were used to refresh th e author’s memory with regard to the coverage of certain incidents during the war. The following were the main sources of information that was accessed and the locations where they were sourc ed:?

Boo s, journal articles, as well as theses and dissertations were sourced from the libraries of the University of Stellenbosch and the Journalism Department at the University of Stellenbosch. Theses, dissertations, conference papers and refereed journal articles we re consulted through the internet. US government, White House and Department of Defense policy papers, speech transcripts and other official documents were accessed via the internet.

Hard copies and internet media archives of national and international newspape rs, magazines and academic journals were studied. Approximately hours of video recordings of mostly CNN coverage of Operation Iraqi Freedom own collection was studied.

Five interviews were conducted, four by e-mail and one telephonically. In the flow of news from its sources to the audience reporters and editors are responsible for the selection of news; therefore they are gate eepers Nosse , Journalists and editors are employed by media organisations, with the ir own priorities, and which form part of the greater media as institution.

In turn, th e media as a whole is part of the social structure, and as such interacts with and is influen ced by other societal constructs. When relevant news flow studies were identified, studies dealing with ne ws flow to South Africa were also considered, even though none of them deal with news fl ow during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The gate eeping studies that were reviewed only refer to Operation Iraqi Freedom coverage. The most notable of these, e. De Beer, Serfontein, Naud? Because they form the basis of the analyse s in the present study, the wor done by the International Press Institute and Sreber ny- Mohammadi is discussed briefly. War, politics and foreign relations are covered most frequentl y, while cultural activities and smaller nations as a whole are mostly ignored.

Two of these findings are that politics and political actors dominate internatio nal news reporting everywhere, and that media across the globe tends to focus on events t a ing place in its immediate geographical region Stevenson, a. The latter did no t apply to Operation Iraqi Freedom, when the South African media, li e that of hundreds of nations across the globe, enthusiastically covered a war that was geographically and politically far removed from the audience itself; the reasons for this could be the subject of a separate study on news values, news flow and gate eeping.

Despite Sreberny-Mohammadi? This study, involving researchers in nearly 50 countries Stevenson, b , was seen as needed due to drastic 41 changes in global politics during the s, as well as economic changes causing political and social upheaval in especially Third World countries De Beer et al.

The results of the news flow study were never published in toto Schreiner, , but some participants decided to publish their “national” results, suc h as De Beer et al. These results represent two of the very few international studies of news flow to Afri ca Schreiner, This study also showed that compared to the global news flow study of cover age of international trade and sports increased while global politics received less attention.

In their study of international news flow and events covered by African media, D e Beer et al. They found that the media did not overly depend on the four agencies and that they us ed more stories from their own reporters and correspondents. This implied a shorter news channel with fewer gate eepers to influence agendas and frames of the coverage.

A more recent news flow study in South Africa is the comprehensive wor of South African media analyst Wadim Schreiner who did a quantitative study of new s flow to, from, and within Africa. He noted that although South African news cove rage of events outside of Africa is decreasing, intense news incidents such as the at tac s on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon on 11 September tend to confuse the pic ture of news flow to Africa Schreiner, Internationally, a number of news flow studies were conducted since Operation Ir aqi Freedom, such as Hamilton and Jenner , Nosse and Horvit Th ese studies loo at the news flow phenomenon from a widely divergent range of viewpo ints.

In their study of the changing face of foreign correspondence, American mass communication scholars John Maxwell Hamilton and Eric Jenner , delineate changes in international news flow with the aim of elucidating the implications of such changes for future researchers who want to study the interp lay between news and international policy.

Traditional foreign correspondents? Parachute journalists? Foreign foreign correspondent? Local foreign correspondent? Foreign local correspondent? In-house foreign correspondent? Premium service foreign correspondent?

Amateur correspondent? The authors of the study might have added a category for “expert non-affiliated foreign correspondents”, that is, foreigners who are experts in their field, but not jou rnalists per se, hypothetically for example, if South African naturalist conservationist Lawr ence Anthony would write a report for the Washington Post about the plight of the ani mals in the Baghdad Zoo. Because the term “foreign correspondent” no longer defines the traditional conce pt, Hamilton and Jenner concludes: We cannot assess the health of foreign correspondence merely by counting the number of reporters sent abroad by major dailies and the networ s or by only analyzing stories in The New Yor Times, Newswee and CBS News.

The Times London, UK and? None of the incidents occurred in the selected countries, which means that they all can be regarded as foreign news. Nosse ‘s theoretical assumption was that when journalists identify foreign news events as their own “ours” , their professionalism is superseded by patriotism, but wh en an event is defined as “theirs”, traditional journalistic professional practices ar e followed : Expressed as a rule, we would say that the more? Nosse ‘s analyses indicate that 😕

After an event has been defined as terrorism, war or violent protest, journali sts determine whether it is “ours” or “theirs”. When it is neither, coverage conform s to traditional norms of foreign news coverage. The location of the event is of no special importance as a news value. Not al incidences of political violence become foreign news?

This belies the common notion that acts of terrorism guarantees publicity, which is the purpose of the deed.

While the victim or target of the act may have an influence on the coverage, t he perpetrator has no control over whether or how the act will be reported on. The study is interesting in terms of the flow of foreign news, but it is a pity that more recent acts of violence, such as the 11 September attac s on the US and the war in Iraq were not included; not only for the sa e of recency, but because the media landscape?

Nevertheless, the study gives insight into the logic of reporters during times of national crisis. American journalism academic Beverly Horvit conducted a study from another angle , namely to examine how six international news agencies reflected the internationa l structure of political power in the period prior to Gulf War II This is done to determine in what ways the news that most probably have reached the American public differed from news that flowed to the rest of the international community : whose perspectives were most salient, and was the coverage for or against the Bush administration’s foreign policies?

Analysing reports from international news agencies? According to Horvit , this is an indication that 44 the news agencies did not wor to cast doubt on a source? Horvit also notes that contrary to the views of some critics, Western news agenc ies cover a broader geographical area than their non-Western counterparts, and also provided news much more frequently However, the non-Western agencies reported on countries that would rarely be covered by Western agencies, such as Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and the U raine, as well as Cuba, Cyprus and Nicaragua Horvit, Four of the agencies reported most frequently from the US and cited US officials more often than any other source Horvit, The study suggests that the West ern news agencies are even-handed in their reporting, with especially AP, AFP and Re uters getting “much closer to balancing positive and negative statements toward the US ” Horvit, Horvit concludes that [w]hile researchers have long studied the imbalance in the flow of news about particular countries, research into source dependency suggests the imbalance within the flow of international news should be addressed, as well An imbalance in sourcing practices is as problematic as?

This study gives a good idea of the leanings of the different news agencies, and it would be interesting if this study could be expanded in future to determine how the ag ency stories were eventually used by the media in different countries across the glob e. The news analysis of the current study partially addresses this issue.

When reading these articles, however, it is clear that gate eeping is a ddressed. Ravi studies the gate eeping role of nationality and elite opinion in the flow of news from its sources to the audience.

The selected incidents and public addresses offer valuable points of reference to determine w hether the newspapers accepted, rejected or digressed from the official US war frame, a s well as to establish how national points of view and cultural and political differenc es shaped coverage of the war Ravi, Seven significant issues emerge from the study Ravi, 😕 The US war frame dominated coverage, as the rapid advance of the Anglo- American forces showed that they had the upper hand both strategically and operationally.

The maxim that history is written by the victors proved true: the Iraqi war fr ame, with statements of fierce resistance and the coalition forces being halted in th eir trac s, was either ignored or derided. Reports seem to echo the values and views of the societies they belong to: US and UK coverage avoided images and reports of civilian deaths, as this “would represent a callous disregard for innocents and seem out of character with their own notion of their countries and their values”.

Patriotic coverage is a reality? Elite opinion directly affected coverage, especially in the US where it was di vided before the war, but unified behind the war effort once the attac s on Iraq began. Specific cultural and societal orientations are reflected in the coverage. Wes tern society’s emphasis on the individual was mirrored in reports on individual casualties or rescue operations, while the South Asian emphasis was on the collective, which is in line with the value this society sets on the community, rather than the individual.

Truth and transparency pay off in information management: the Embedded Media Program and high-profile US briefings enhanced the credibility of the US military. Ravi did not consider the possibility that the “openness and truth telling” of the US administration’s information management was part of a carefully planned strategy, aimed specifically at influencing public opinion in favour of the US w ar effort Rumsfeld, a.

Palmer and Fontan loo at a completely neglected role-player in the gate eeping process, namely the fixer, and examine how this additional lin between the sour ce and the reporter impacts upon newsgathering in Iraq.

Traditionally, the relay between an event and the reporter is seen as the “sourc e”? Because of the 46 brea down of security in Iraq since the war, as well as the language barrie r, the Western media became highly dependent on fixers, local citizens and reporters to report from Iraq. These Iraqi? The reduced quality of the reporting resulting from the relationship with the fixers. To determine the ey issues in the minds of reporters and fixers Palmer and Font an conducted semi-structured interviews with 17 French and British reporte rs and 14 Iraqi fixers wor ing for US, UK and Japanese print and audio-visual media.

Language: hardly any of the Western journalists spo e Arabic. Recruitment: in most cases competent fixers were employed after coincidental o r friendship-based meetings. The fixer? They arrang e and even conduct interviews, translate, explain context to reporters, assess the security situation, handle dangerous situations and have access to networ s of local contacts. The perception of ris arising from dependence on fixers: journalists fear mistranslation and omission of important information, that they will not blend with and understand the local population, and that the fixer will determine the reporters?

Parachute journalism and changes in foreign newsgathering: the traditional way foreign reporters operated had changed and now they seldom live long enough in an area to get to now the culture of their hosts, building up contacts, etc. Fixers help bridge the nowledge gap that is created by this practice. Palmer and Fontan conclude that the traditional foreign correspondent had change d dramatically during Gulf War II Media bureaus in Iraq are staffed by a rotation of reporters, who do not now the country and its people and are unable to spea Arabic, which ma es fixers indispensable.

Although Western reporters fear that their fixers would harm the quality of their reporting, an independent analysis is necessary to substantiate such a claim. The field of research begs to be expanded upon, for example, to determine the extent of the actual gate eeping done by fixers. Also, in view of the strict rules applied by the US military with regard to what embedded reporters were allowed to do, it ma es sense that locals who lead repor ters to stories the military would have preferred to be ignored, might cause problems.

I t would be interesting to study the stresses between the US military’s media policies an d the fixer-phenomenon. Despite the controversy about the gate eeping function of the US military, little research has been done on it. Furthermore, research on people in gate eeping positions does not explain the phenomenon in terms of the gate eeping as a theory, e. The reaso ns for this can only be speculated about. Howe ver, this study will focus on only two of those stages, namely first and second level agendasetting.

Also, although agendasetting is an effects theory, the reaction o f the audience to the set agendas is not tested as the focus of the study is on the fl ow of news. Agendasetting is a popular field of research, and during the period to scholars published the highest number ever 43 of international journal article s that refer to agendasetting Weaver, Obviously, not all of these stud ies refer to Gulf War II, but the controversial nature of the US government’s media polici es during the war proved fertile ground for scholarly studies on agendasetting.

Due to the number of studies that were published since the start of Gulf War II, the current study will only focus on agendasetting research done on coverage during the war. Research dealing with the period preceding the war includes studies by St. The main issue addressed in this study is the sources cited in coverage by the selected television broadc asters. Five distinct groups of sources were identified Ayeni, : 48? This highlights an interesting and very important aspec t in the debate about partiality in reporting: while reporters may be unbiased in their presentation of information, the slant of the story may be determined by the sou rces they choose to cite Ayeni, Ayeni notes that the disproportionate number of government and militar y officials cited may be an indication of covert propaganda on the part of the Bus h administration’s “power bro ers”, which does not bode well to the general public who have to accept media reports reflecting the agenda set by the US government.

Thi s is a reasonable conclusion, although an in-depth study of the government’s media stra tegy may prove that this specific matter, namely the number of official sources cited , forms part of the more overt part of the US strategy.

Using second level agenda setting and framing Kang examines whether:? Results show that the news agenda before the war was dominated by war plans and diplomacy issues. After the start of the war the news agenda consisted almost en tirely of war reports, although in April criticism of the war plans was high on the a genda. In June and July , war intelligence and US casualties were added to the agen da. The results from Kang’s study shows:?

While individual reports seem balanced, the mass of positive reports is responsible for the slant of the public opinion? Ayish of the United Arab Emirates, also examine the way in which three television stations covered the war, but they concentrate on the way the Arab media, in particular Al Jazeera, Al Arabiya and Abu Dhabi Channel, covered the fall of Baghdad and the end of Saddam?

Neither Abu Dhabi Channel nor Al Arabiy a reported on anything but the war in Iraq, while Al Jazeera reported on Palestini ans who were illed and injured in Bait Hanoon in clashes with Israelis, as well as an e xplosion at a Palestinian high school that injured 27 pupils.

Zayani and Ayish conclude that the three television channels establi shed themselves as the main Arab source of information on the war and that the mobili sation of the channels is seen as a direct challenge to especially the US hegemony. While no tears were shed on the fall of Saddam if anything the notable condemnation of the toppled Iraqi regime is a significant departure from Arab media?

Behind the perspective that transpires from the coverage of the fall of Baghdad lies arguably a sense of malaise, resentment and frustration that emanates from several decades of defeat. From a theoretical perspective, authors often se em to drift between theories, especially between second level agendasetting and framin g, sometimes treating them as variants of the same theory, for example the study by Kang This results in what Dietram Scheufele of the School of Journalism and M ass Communication at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and David Tew sbury refer to as “a confusing set of concepts and terminologies” , which seems to be quite common in literature on this field of study.

Of course, second level agendasetting and framing are interrelated and involves very similar, yet distinguishable cognitive processes and effects Weaver, ,1 Both refer to how issues are covered, rather than which issues are covered.

This ma es it all the more confusing.